The term illusion refers to a specific form of sensory distortion. Unlike a hallucination, which is a distortion in the absence of a stimulus, an illusion describes a misinterpretation of a true sensation. For example, hearing voices regardless of the environment would be a hallucination, whereas hearing voices in the sound of running water (or other auditory source) would be an illusion.
Mimes are known for a repertoire of illusions that are created by physical means. The mime artist creates an illusion of acting upon or being acted upon by an unseen object. These illusions exploit the audience's assumptions about the physical world. Well-known examples include "walls", "climbing stairs", "leaning", "descending ladders", and "pulling and pushing".
Temporal illusionsTemporal illusions can occur in many ways.
Other sensesIllusions can occur with the other senses including those involved in food perception. Here both sound and touch have been shown to modulate the perceived staleness and crispness of food products. It was also discovered that even if some portion of the taste receptor on the tongue became damaged that illusory taste could be produced by tactile stimulation. Evidence of olfactory (smell) illusions occurred when positive or negative verbal labels were given prior to olfactory stimulation.
DisordersSome illusions occur as result of an illness or a disorder. While these types of illusions are not shared with everyone, they are typical of each condition. For example, migraine sufferers often report fortification illusions.
NeuroscienceIn an experiment with one patient, electrical stimulation at the left temporoparietal junction lead to an illusion of another person close to her.
- Argument from illusion
- Augmented reality
- Dream argument
- Illusion costume
- Moon illusion
- Simulated reality
- Not related to senses (cognitive illusions)
- Solso, R. L. (2001). Cognitive psychology (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 0-205-30937-2
- McGurk, Hj.; MacDonald, J. (1976). "Hearing lips and seeing voices". Nature 264: 746–748. doi:10.1038/264746a0.
- Yoon Mo Jung and Jackie (Jianhong) Shen (2008), J. Visual Comm. Image Representation, 19(1):42-55, First-order modeling and stability analysis of illusory contours.
- Yoon Mo Jung and Jackie (Jianhong) Shen (2014), arXiv:1406.1265, Illusory shapes via phase transition.
- Gross, L 2006 THIS REFERENCE IS INCOMPLETE
- Robles-De-La-Torre & Hayward 2001
- The Cutting Edge of Haptics (MIT Technology Review article)
- Zampini M & Spence C (2004) "The role of auditory cues in modulating the perceived crispness and staleness of potato chips" Journal of Sensory Studies 19, 347-363.
- Barnett-Cowan M (2010) "An illusion you can sink your teeth into: Haptic cues modulate the perceived freshness and crispness of pretzels" Perception 39, 1684-1686.
- Todrank, J & Bartoshuk, L.M., 1991
- Herz R. S. & Von Clef J., 2001
- Arzy, S; Seeck, M; Ortigue, S; Spinelli, L; Blanke, O (2006). "Induction of an illusory shadow person". Nature 443: 287. doi:10.1038/443287a.
- Hopkin, Michael (20 September 2006), "Brain Electrodes Conjure up Ghostly Visions", Nature, doi:10.1038/news060918-4
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Illusion|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Illusions.|
- Universal Veiling Techniques
- What is an Illusion? by J.R. Block.
- Optical illusions and visual phenomena by Michael Bach
- Auditory illusions
- Haptic Perception of Shape - touch illusions, forces and the geometry of objects, by Gabriel Robles-De-La-Torre.
- Silencing awareness of visual change by motion