The original full title is Principi di Scienza Nuova d'intorno alla Comune Natura delle Nazioni, which may be literally translated as "Principles/Origins of New/Renewed Science About/Surrounding the Common Nature of Nations".
Production and publicationIn 1720, Vico began work on the Scienza Nuova as part of a treatise on Universal rights. Although a full volume was originally to be sponsored by Cardinal Corsini (the future Pope Clement XII), Vico was forced to finance the publication himself after the Cardinal pled financial difficulty and withdrew his patronage. The first edition of the New Science (Scienza Nuova, rather than Nuova Scienza, for which Galileo had been known) appeared in 1725, and a second, reworked version was published in 1730; neither was well received during Vico’s lifetime.
Vico himself worked on two revisited editions, that were published under new titles, the first in 1730 and the second posthumously in 1744. It was the first work by Vico to be written in Italian, while his previous ones were written in Latin.
Approach, style and toneIn its first section, titled "Idea of the Work" (Idea dell'Opera), the Scienza Nuova (1730 and 1744) explicitly presents itself as a "Science of reasoning" (Scienza di ragionare). Indeed, the work (cf. most notably the section "Of the Elements") includes a dialectic between axioms (authoritative maxims or degnità) and "reasonings" (ragionamenti) linking and clarifying the axioms.
Vico specifies that his "Scienza" reasons primarily about the function of religion in the human world ("Idea of the Work"), and in this respect the work "comes to be one reasoned civil theology of divine providence" (vien ad essere una teologia civile ragionata della provvidenza divina). Reconsidering divine things (viz. "the conduct of divine providence") within a human or political context, Vico unearths the "poetic theologians" (poeti teologi) of pagan antiquity, exposing the poetic character of theology independently of Christianity's sacred history and thus of Biblical authority (see e.g. Scienza Nuova , "Of the Elements," CXIV). Vico's unearthing of poetic theology (anticipated already in his De Antiquissima Italorum Sapientia (1710), "On the most ancient wisdom of the Italians") confirms the philosopher's ties to Italian Renaissance appeals to theologia poetica. With the early Renaissance, Vico shares the call for recovering a "pagan" or "vulgar" horizon for philosophy's providential agency, or for recognizing the providence of our human "metaphysical" minds/menti in the world of our "political" wills/animi ("Idea of the Work," par. 2). "Poetic theology" would serve as stage for an "ascent" (ibid.) to recognize the inherence or latency of rational agency in our actions, even when these are brutal (see further "Of the Method," par. 2). This way, the particular providence of the Bible's "true God" ("Of the Elements," CXIV) would not be required for the thriving of properly human life. All that would be needed was (A) false religions/Gods and (B) the covert work of the conatus (rational principle of constitution of experience rooted in its proper infinite form) examined at length in the De Antiquissima Italorum Sapientia and evoked again in par. 2 of the "Of the Method" section of the Scienza Nuova (1730 and 1744).
Stage theory and recurring cycle of civilizationRelying on a complex etymology, Vico argues in the Scienza Nuova that civilization develops in a recurring cycle (ricorso) of three ages: the divine, the heroic, and the human. Each age exhibits distinct political and social features and can be characterized by master tropes or figures of language. The giganti of the divine age rely on metaphor to compare, and thus comprehend, human and natural phenomena. In the heroic age, metonymy and synecdoche support the development of feudal or monarchic institutions embodied by idealized figures. The final age is characterized by popular democracy and reflection via irony; in this epoch, the rise of rationality leads to barbarie della reflessione or barbarism of reflection, and civilization descends once more into the poetic era. Taken together, the recurring cycle of three ages – common to every nation – constitutes for Vico a storia ideale eterna or ideal eternal history.
Ideas on Rhetoric applied to History
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Crucial to Vico's work remains a subtle criticism of all attempts to impose universality upon particularity, as if ex nihilo. Instead, Vico attempts to always let "the true" emerge from "the certain" through innumerable stories and anecdotes drawn mostly from the history of Greece and Rome and from the Bible. Here, reason does not attempt to overcome the poetic dimension of life and speech, but to moderate its impulses so as to safeguard civil life.
While the transfer from divine to heroic to human ages is, for Vico, marked by shifts in the tropological nature of language, the inventional aspect of the poetic principle remains constant. When referring to “poets”, Vico intends to evoke the original Greek sense of “creators”. In the Scienza Nuova, then, the verum factum principle first put forth in De Italorum Sapientia remains central. As such, the notion of topics as the loci or places of invention (put forth by Aristotle and developed throughout classical rhetoric) serves as the foundation for "the true", and thus, as the underlying principle of sensus communis and civic discourse. The development of laws that shape the social and political character of each age is informed as much by master tropes as by those topics deemed acceptable in each era. Thus, for the rudimentary civilization of the divine age, sensory topics are employed to develop laws applicable on an individual basis. These laws expand as metonymy and synecdoche enable notions of sovereign rule in the heroic age; accordingly, acceptable topics expand to include notions of class and division. In the final, human age, the reflection that enables popular democracy requires appeals to any and all topics to achieve a common, rational law that is universally applicable. The development of civilization in Vico’s storia ideale eterna, then, is rooted in the first canon of rhetoric, as invention via loci shapes both the creation of and discourse about civil life.
Reception and later influenceVico’s major work was poorly received during his own life but has since inspired a cadre of famous thinkers and artists, including Karl Marx. Later his work was received more favourably as in the case of Lord Monboddo to whom he was compared in a modern treatise.
Isaiah Berlin has devoted attention to Vico as a critic of the Enlightenment and a significant humanist and culture theorist.
Scienza Nuova was included by Martin Seymour-Smith in his book 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written.
The historical cycle provides the structure for James Joyce's book, Finnegans Wake. The intertextual relationship between Scienza Nuova and Finnegans Wake was brought to light by Samuel Beckett in his essay "Dante... Bruno. Vico.. Joyce” published in "Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress" (1929), where Beckett argued that Vico's conception of language also had significant influence in Joyce's work. Vico's notion of the lingua mentale commune (mental dictionary) in relation to universale fantastico reverberates in Joyce's novel, which ends in the middle of a sentence, reasserting Vico's principle of cyclical history.
- Reiner Grundmann, 1991. Marxism and Ecology. Oxford University Press
- Hobbs, Catherine, Rhetoric on the Margin of Modernity, Vico, Condillac, Monboddo, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, Illinois (1992)
- Berlin, Isaiah, Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas, Chatto and Windus, 1976. Redwood Burn Ltd.. ISBN 0-7011-2512-8.
- Berlin, Isaiah, Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder, Pimlico, 2000. ISBN 0-7126-6492-0.
- Verene, Donald Phillip. Vico and Joyce. Albany: State University of New York, 1987. Print.
- Costelloe, Timothy. "Giambattista Vico". Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- Kreis, Steven. "Giambattista Vico, The New Science (1725)". Retrieved 2009-08-03.