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Mythology of Demeter and Persephone
- Priests, priestesses and hierophants.
- Initiates, undergoing the ceremony for the first time.
- Others who had already participated at least once. They were eligible for the fourth category.
- Those who had attained épopteia (Greek: ἐποπτεία) (English: "contemplation"), who had learned the secrets of the greatest mysteries of Demeter.
|“||For among the many excellent and indeed divine institutions which your Athens has brought forth and contributed to human life, none, in my opinion, is better than those mysteries. For by their means we have been brought out of our barbarous and savage mode of life and educated and refined to a state of civilization; and as the rites are called "initiations," so in very truth we have learned from them the beginnings of life, and have gained the power not only to live happily, but also to die with a better hope.||”|
—Cicero, Laws II, xiv, 36
References and sources
- Cf. Mylonas, 1961, p.24. "Again, from legends we learn of the arrival of the Cult of Demeter at Eleusis in the fifteenth century[BC] --- an event that must of course have had a profound influence on the life and activities of the site
- Martin Nilsson.The Greek popular religion.The cult of Eleusis pp 42-44
- Ouvaroff, M. (alternatively given as Sergei Semenovich Uvarov, or Sergey Uvarov, 1786-1855) (Translated from the French by J. D. Price) Essay on the Mysteries of Eleusis, London : Rodwell and Martin, 1817 (Reprint: USA: Kessinger Publishing, 2004). Ouvaroff does write that fixing the earliest foundation date to the Eleusinian Mysteries is fraught with problems.
- Elysion:The island of the happy dead (Hesiod:Works and days166ff).Eileithyia.A Minoan goddess of childbirth and divine midwifery:F.Schachermeyer(1967).Die Minoische Kultur des alten Kreta.W.Kohlhammer Stuttgart. pp 141-142
- Tripolitis, Antonia. Religions of the Hellenistic-Roman Age. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, November 2001. pp. 16–21.
- Wasson, R. Gordon, Ruck, Carl, Hofmann, A., The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978.
- Foley, Helene P., The Homeric "Hymn ro Demeter". Princeton University Press 1994. Also Vaughn, Steck. Demeter and Persephone. Steck Vaughn Publishing, June 1994
- Smith, William. A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography Vol. II. Kessinger Publishing, LLC 2006.
- Smith, 2006.
- Greene, William C. "The Return of Persephone". Classical Philology. University of Chicago Press 1946. pp. 105–106
- The Homeric Hymns translated by Jules Cashford, Penguin Books, 2003, p. 24.
- Similar ideas appear in many ancient agricultural societies: in the cult of Adonis in Phoenecia,the cult of Osiris in Egypt and the cult of Ariadne in Minoan Crete. Also in China:"There in the buried seed,the end of life is connected with a new beginning":The I Ching or book of changes, transl. Richard Wilhelm p.45
- Nilsson, Martin P. Greek Popular Religion "The Religion of Eleusis" New York: Columbia University Press, 1947. pages 42 - 64
- Newton, Joseph Fort.The Builders p.24
- Karl Kerenyi.Dionysos.Archetypal image of indestructible life.p 24,89,90.
- Savage, William A. "Quest of the Soul: The Eleusinian Mysteries". Sunrise (magazine). February/March 2006.
- Apollodorus, 1.5.2.
- Smith, William. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London, 1875.
- Taylor, Thomas. Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries. Lighting Source Publishers, 1997. p. 117.
- Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, in ANF, vol. 5; 5, 3
- Taylor, p.49.
- Clinton, Kevin. "The Epidauria and the Arrival of Asclepius in Athens", in Ancient Greek Cult Practice from the Epigraphical Evidence, edited by R. Hägg. Stockholm, 1994.
- Iacchus (Iakchos) was the divine name of the mystic Bacchus at Athens and Eleusis, derived from the boisterous festive song named for him, called Iacchus, and sung during the procession — he personified the initiates' ritual cry of joy "Íakhe". SeeIacchus: Demi-God of the Ritual Cry of the Eleusinian Mysteries, Theoi Project, theoi.com. Accessed 2012-5-28.See also Aristophanes, Frogs 316 ff, 5th-4th C. B.C.; Plutarch,Life of Alcibiades 34. 3; Herodotus, Histories, 8. 65. 4; Arrian,Anabasis Alexandri, ii. 16; Virgil, Georgics, i. 166; and Plutarch,Themistocles, 15.
- According to Clement of Alexandria's Exhortaton to the Greeks. See Meyer 1999, 18.
- See (e.g.) Brisson/Teihnayi 2004, 60
- Hecht, Jennifer Michael (2003). "Whatever Happened to Zeus and Hera?, 600 BCE-1 CE". Doubt: A History. Harper San Francisco. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-06-009795-7.
- A History of Freethought, Ancient and Modern, to the Period of the French Revolution, J.M. Robertson, Fourth Edition, Revised and Expanded, In Two Volumes, Vol. I, Watts, 1936. p173 - 174.
- Nicomachean Ethics 1111a8-10.
- Boardman, Griffin, and Murray. The Oxford History of the Classical World. Oxford University Press 1986.
- "Eleusis: Pathways to Ancient Myth". Calvin.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
- Rassias, Vlasis. Demolish Them. (in Greek) Athens 2000.
- "Timeline of Art History: Italian Peninsula, 1000 BC–1 AD".The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
- "The Niinnion Tablet (Image)". Wesleyan University. Retrieved July 25, 2007.
- Collins, Derek. Magic in the Ancient Greek World. Wiley, 2008
- Wasson, et al..
- Burkert, op.cit. Ch.4
- Shulgin & Shulgin. Tihkal. Transform Press, 1997.
- "Erowid Ergot Vault". Erowid.org. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
- Stephen R. Berlant (2005) (PDF). The entheomycological origin of Egyptian crowns and the esoteric underpinnings of Egyptian religion. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.028.
- Karl Kerenyi.Dionysos.Archetypal image of indestructible life.p 24
- Metzner, Ralph. "The Reunification of the Sacred and the natural". Eleusis Volume VIII, 1997. pp. 3-13
- Robin Waterfield,Why Socrates Died, Faber & Faber, 2009, p. 92.
- Apollodorus. Apollodorus: The Library, Sir James George Frazer (translator). Two volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Vol. 1: ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Vol. 2: ISBN 0-674-99136-2.
- Boardman, Griffin, and Murray. The Oxford History of the Classical World (Oxford University Press 1986). ISBN 978-0-19-872112-3.
- Bowden, Hugh. Mystery Cults of the Ancient World (Princeton University Press; 2010) 256 pages; A study of the Mysteries of Eleusis and other cults of ancient Greece and Rome.
- Brisson, Luc and Tihanyi, Catherine (2004). How Philosophers Saved Myths: Allegorical Interpretation and Classical Mythology.University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07535-4
- Burkert, Walter, Ancient Mystery Cults, Harvard University Press, 1987.
- Cicero. Laws II, xiv, 36.
- Clinton, Kevin. "The Epidauria and the Arrival of Asclepius in Athens" in Ancient Greek Cult Practice from the Epigraphical Evidence. edited by R. Hägg, Stockholm, 1994. ISBN 91-7916-029-8.
- Goblet d’Alviella, Eugène, comte, The mysteries of Eleusis : the secret rites and rituals of the classical Greek mystery tradition, 1903.
- Greene, William C. "The Return of Persephone" in Classical Philology. University of Chicago Press 1946. pp. 105–106.
- Kerényi, Karl. Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter, Princeton University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-691-01915-0.
- Metzner, Ralph. "The Reunification of the Sacred and the natural", Eleusis Volume VIII, pp. 3–13 (1997).
- McKenna, Terence. Food of the Gods: Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge. Bantam, January 1993. ISBN 0-553-37130-4.
- Meyer, Marvin W. (1999). The Ancient Mysteries, a Sourcebook: Sacred Texts of the Mystery Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean World. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1692-X
- Moore, Clifford H. Religious Thought of the Greeks. (1916). Kessinger Publishing April, 2003. ISBN 0-7661-5130-1.
- Mylonas, George Emmanuel. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries. Princeton University Press 1961.
- Nilsson, Martin P. Greek Popular Religion 1940.
- Rassias, Vlasis. Demolish Them. (in Greek) Athens, 2000. (2nd edition) ISBN 960-7748-20-4.
- Riu, Xavier. Dionysism and Comedy, (1999), Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.; Reprint edition (March 2002). ISBN 0-8476-9442-9. Cf. p. 107 for a discussion of Dionysus and his role in the Eleusinian Mysteries.
- Rohde, Erwin. Psyche: The Cult of Souls and the Belief in Immortality among the Greeks. trans. from the 8th edn. by W. B. Hillis, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1925; reprinted by Routledge, 2000. cf. Chapter 6, "The Eleusinian Mysteries".
- Shulgin, Alexander, Ann Shulgin. TiHKAL. Transform Press, 1997.
- Smith, William, A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography Vol. II. Kessinger Publishing, LLC 2006. ISBN 1-4286-4561-6.
- Smith, William. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London, 1875.
- Taylor, Thomas, The Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries: a dissertation. Amsterdam [i.e. London] [c.1790], later editions, edited, and reprinted variously. (Fourth Edition, 1891)
- Tripolitis, Antonia. Religions of the Hellenistic-Roman Age. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, November 2001. ISBN 0-8028-4913-X.
- Vaughn, Steck. Demeter and Persephone. Steck Vaughn Publishing, June 1994. ISBN 978-0-8114-3362-4.
- Wasson, R, Ruck, C., Hofmann, A., The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978.ISBN 0-15-177872-8.
- Willoughby, Harold R. The Greater Mysteries at Eleusis, Ch. 2 of Pagan Regeneration: A Study of Mystery Initiations in the Graeco-Roman World, 2003, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 0-7661-8083-2. Broad excerpts can be browsed online.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Eleusinian Mysteries|
- The Eleusinian Mysteries, Edward A. Beach.
- The Eleusinian Mysteries, Thomas R. Martin, from An Overview of Classical Greek History from Homer to Alexander.
- Images of Inscriptions about the Mysteries at Eleusis, Cornell University Library.
- Foreword and first chapter from The Road to Eleusis R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann, Carl A. P. Ruck
- Rosicrucian Digest vol. 87 devoted entirely to the Eleusinian Mysteries