Thursday, 25 October 2012

Hindu Astrology

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Hindu astrology (also known as Indian astrology, more recently Vedic astrology, also Jyotish or Jyotisha, from Sanskrit jyotiṣa, from jyótis- "light, heavenly body") is the traditional Hindu system of astronomy and astrology. It has three branches:[1]
The foundation of Hindu astrology is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas, (scriptures), which is the connection between the microcosm and the macrocosm. Practice relies primarily on the sidereal zodiac, which is different from the tropical zodiac used in Western (Hellenistic) astrology in that an ayanamsa adjustment is made for the gradual precession of the vernal equinox. Hindu astrology includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and prediction with elements not found in Hellenistic astrology, such as its system of lunar mansions (nakshatras).
Astrology remains an important facet in the lives of many Hindus. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally named based on their jyotish charts, and astrological concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and holidays as well as in many areas of life, such as in making decisions made about marriage, opening a new business, and moving into a new home. Astrology retains a position among the sciences in modern India.[2] Following a judgement of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in 2001, some Indian universities offer advanced degrees in astrology.[3]
The term Hindu astrology had been in use as the English equivalent of Jyotisha since the early 19th century. Vedic astrology is a relatively recent term, entering common usage in the 1980s with self-help publications on Ayurveda or Yoga. The qualifier "Vedic" is however something of a misnomer,[4][5][6] as there is no mention of Jyotisha in the Vedas, and historical documentation suggests horoscopic astrology in the Indian subcontinent was a Hellenic influence post-dating the Vedic period.[7]



[edit] History

Jyotiṣa is one of the Vedanga, the six auxiliary disciplines used to support Vedic rituals.[8]:376 Early jyotish is concerned with the preparation of a calendar to fix the date of sacrificial rituals.[8]:377 Nothing is written on planets.[8]:377 There are mentions of eclipse causing "demons" in the Atharaveda and Chandogya Upanishad, the Chandogya mentioning Rahu.[8]:382 In fact the term graha, which is now taken to mean planet, originally meant demon.[8]:381 The Rigveda also mentions an eclipse causing demon, Svarbhānu, however the specific term of "graha" becomes applied to Svarbhānu in the later Mahabharata and Ramayana..[8]:382
It is only after the Greek settlement in Bactria (third century BC) that explicit references to planets are attested in Sanskrit texts.[8]:382 It was only after the transmission of Hellenistic astrology that the order of planets in India was fixed in that of the seven-day week.[8]:383 Hellenstic astrology and astronomy also transmitted the twelve zodiacal signs beginning with Aries and the twelve astrological places beginning with the ascendant.[8]:384 The first evidence of the introduction of Greek astrology to India is the Yavanajataka which dates to the early centuries CE.[8]:383 The Yavanajataka ("Sayings of the Greeks") was translated from Greek to Sanskrit by Yavanesvara during the 2nd century CE, under the patronage of the Western Satrap Saka king Rudradaman I, and is considered the first Indian astrological treatise in the Sanskrit language.[9] However the only version that survives is the later verse version of Sphujidhvaja which dates to AD 270.[8]:383 The first Indian astronomical text to define the weekday was the Āryabhaṭīya of Āryabhaṭa (born AD 476).[8]:383 According to Michio Yano, Indian astronomers must have been occupied with the task of Indianizing and Sanskritizing Greek astronomy during the 300 or so years between the first Yavanajataka and the Āryabhaṭīya.[8]:388 The astronomical texts of these 300 years are lost.[8]:388 The later Pañcasiddhāntikā of Varāhamihira summarizes the five known Indian astronomical schools of the sixth century.[8]:388 It is interesting to note that Indian astronomy preserved some of the older pre-Ptolemaic elements of Greek astronomy.[8]:389
The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are early medieval compilations, notably the Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra, and Sārāvalī by Kalyāṇavarman. The Horashastra is a composite work of 71 chapters, of which the first part (chapters 1–51) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second part (chapters 52–71) to the later 8th century. The Sārāvalī likewise dates to around 800 CE.[10] English translations of these texts were published by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961, respectively.

[edit] Elements

[edit] Vargas

There are sixteen varga (Sanskrit: varga, 'part, division'), or divisional, charts used in Hindu astrology:[11]:61–64
Rasi1D-1Natal chart
Hora2D-2Overall wealth
Trimshamsha5D-5Morals, ethics, spiritual values
Navamsha9D-9Spouse, Etc.
Dashamsha10D-10Earning Career
Dwadashamsha12D-12Parents, Grandparents
Vimshamsha20D-20Upasana-s, Sādhana-s
Chaturvimsha24D-24Education (higher)
Khavedamsha40D-40Quality of life
Akshavedamsha45D-45(From here on out,the birth time must be absolutely precise or the divisional chart is incorrect!!)
Shastiamsha60D-60Used to differentiate between twins, etc., etc.

[edit] Chart styles

There are three chart styles used in Jyotiṣa, which are depicted below:

North Indian

South Indian

Eastern Indian
Legend: Ra - Rahu, Sa - Saturn, Ve - Venus, Su -Sun, Ma - Mars, Me - Mercury, As - Lagna, Mo - Moon, Ke - Kethu, Ju - Jupiter.

[edit] Grahas – the planets

Graha (Devanagari: ग्रह, Sanskrit: graha, 'seizing, laying hold of, holding'.)[12]
Nine grahas, or navagrahas, are used:[11]:38–51
Sanskrit NameEnglish NameAbbreviationGenderGuna
Surya (सूर्य)SunSy or SuMSattva
Chandra (चंद्र)MoonCh or MoMSattva
Mangala (मंगल)MarsMaMTamas
Budha (बुध)MercuryBu or MeNRajas
Brihaspati (बृहस्पति)JupiterGu or JuMSattva
Shukra (शुक्र)VenusSk or VeMRajas
Shani (शनि)SaturnSaMTamas
Rahu (राहु)North Lunar NodeRaMTamas
Ketu (केतु)South Lunar NodeKeMTamas
Planets in maximum exaltation, mooltrikona (own sign), and debilitation, are:[11]:21
GrahaExaltationMooltrikonaDebilitationSign Rulership
Sun10° Aries4°-20° Leo10° LibraLeo
Moon3° Taurus4°-20° Cancer3° ScorpioCancer
Mars28° Capricorn0°-12° Aries28° CancerAries, Scorpio
Mercury15° Virgo16°-20° Virgo15° PiscesGemini, Virgo
Jupiter5° Cancer0°-10° Sagittarius5° CapricornSagittarius, Pisces
Venus27° Pisces0°-15° Libra27° VirgoTaurus, Libra
Saturn20° Libra0°-20° Aquarius20° AriesCapricorn, Aquarius
RahuTaurus, GeminiVirgoScorpio, SagittariusAquarius (co-ruler)
KetuScorpio, SagittariusPiscesTaurus, GeminiScorpio (co-ruler)
The natural planetary relationships are:[11]:21
SunMoon, Mars, JupiterMercuryVenus, Saturn
MoonSun, MercuryMars, Jupiter, Venus, SaturnMercury, Venus, Saturn
MarsSun, Moon, JupiterVenus,SaturnMercury
MercurySun, VenusMars, Jupiter, SaturnMoon
JupiterSun, Moon, MarsSaturnMercury, Venus
VenusMercury, SaturnMars, JupiterSun, Moon
SaturnVenus, MercuryJupiterSun, Moon, Mars
RahuSun, VenusMars, Mercury, Jupiter, SaturnMoon
KetuMarsMoon, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, SaturnSun

[edit] Rāśi – the zodiac signs

The sidereal zodiac is an imaginary belt of 360 degrees (like the tropical zodiac), divided into 12 equal parts. Each twelfth part (of 30 degrees) is called a sign or rāśi (Sanskrit: rāśi, 'part'). Jyotiṣa and Western zodiacs differ in the method of measurement. While synchronically, the two systems are identical, Jyotiṣa uses primarily the sidereal zodiac (in which stars are considered to be the fixed background against which the motion of the planets is measured), whereas most Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac (the motion of the planets is measured against the position of the Sun on the Spring equinox). This difference becomes noticeable over time. After two millennia, as a result of the precession of the equinoxes, the origin of the ecliptic longitude has shifted by about 22 degrees. As a result the placement of planets in the Jyotiṣa system is consistent with the actual zodiac, while in western astrology the planets fall into the following sign, as compared to their placement in the sidereal zodiac, about two thirds of the time.
NumberSanskritInternational Alphabet of Sanskrit TransliterationSanskrit glossWestern nameGreekGloss          Tattva (Element)QualityRuling Planet
1मेषMeṣaramAriesΚριόςramTejas (Fire)Cara (Movable)Mars
2वृषभVṛṣabhabullTaurusΤαῦροςbullPrithivi (Earth)Sthira (Fixed)Venus
3मिथुनMithunatwinsGeminiΔίδυμοιtwinsVayu (Air)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Mercury
4कर्कटKarkaṭacrabCancerΚαρκίνοςcrabJala (Water)Cara (Movable)Moon
5सिंहSiṃhalionLeoΛέωνlionTejas (Fire)Sthira (Fixed)Sun
6कन्याKanyāgirlVirgoΠαρθένοςvirginPrithivi (Earth)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Mercury
7तुलाTulābalanceLibraΖυγόςbalanceVayu (Air)Cara (Movable)Venus
8वृश्चिकVṛścikascorpionScorpioΣκoρπιόςscorpionJala (Water)Sthira (Fixed)Mars
9धनुषDhanusbowSagittariusΤοξότηςarcherTejas (Fire)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Jupiter
10मकरMakarasea-monsterCapricornΑἰγόκερωςgoat-hornedPrithivi (Earth)Cara (Movable)Saturn
11कुम्भKumbhapitcherAquariusὙδροχόοςwater-pourerVayu (Air)Sthira (Fixed)Saturn
12मीनMīnafishPiscesἸχθεῖςfishJala (Water)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Jupiter
The zodiac signs in Hindu astrology correspond to parts of the body:[13]
SignPart of Body
Meṣa (Aries)head
Vṛṣabha (Taurus)mouth
Mithuna (Gemini)arms
Karka (Cancer)two sides
Siṃha (Leo)heart
Kanyā (Virgo)digestive system
Tula (Libra)umbilical area
Vṛścika (Scorpio)generative organs
Dhanus (Sagittarius)thighs
Makara (Capricorn)knees
Kumbha (Aquarius)Lower part of legs
Mīna (Pisces)feet

[edit] Bhāvas – the houses

Bhāva (Sanskrit: bhāva, 'division'.) In Hindu astrology, the natal chart is the bhava chakra (Sanskrit: chakra, 'wheel'.) The bhava chakra is the complete 360° circle of life, divided into houses, and represents our way of enacting the influences in the wheel. Each house has associated karaka (Sanskrit: karaka, 'significator') planets that can alter the interpretation of a particular house.[11]:93–167
1LagnaSunouter personality, physique, health/well-being, hair, appearance
2DhanaJupiter, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Moonwealth, family relationships, eating habits, speech, eyesight, death
3SahajaMarsnatural state, innate temperament, courage, valor, virility, younger siblings
4SukhaMooninner life, emotions, home, property, education, mother
5PutraJupitercreativity, children, spiritual practices, punya
6AriMars, Saturnacute illness, injury, openly known enemies, litigation, daily work, foreigners, service
7YuvatiVenus, Jupiterbusiness and personal relationships, marriage, spouse, war, fighting
8RandharaSaturnlength of life, physical death, mokṣa, chronic illness, deep and ancient traditions
9DharmaJupiter, Sunluck, fortune, spirituality, dharma, guru, father
10KarmaMercury, Jupiter, Sun, Saturndream fulfillment, knees and spine, current karmas, career, sky themes (being 12am/mid heavens
11LabhaJupitergains, profits from work, ability to earn money, social contexts and organizations
12VyayaSaturnloss, intuition, imprisonment, foreign travel, moksha

[edit] Nakshatras

A nakshatra or lunar mansion is one of the 27 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, used in Hindu astrology.[11]:168
Historical (medieval) Hindu astrology had various systems of enumerating either 27 or 28 nakshatras. Today, popular usage[clarification needed] favours a rigid system of 27 nakshatras covering 13°20’ of the ecliptic each. Each nakshatra is divided into quarters or padas of 3°20’:
#NameLocationRulerPada 1Pada 2Pada 3Pada 4
1Ashvinī (अश्विनी)0 – 13°20' AriesKetuचु Chuचे Cheचो Choला La
2Bharanī (भरणी)13°20' – 26°40' AriesVenusली Liलू Luले Leपो Lo
3Krittikā (कृत्तिका)26°40' Aries – 10°00' TaurusSunअ Aई Iउ Uए E
4Rohini (रोहिणी)10°00' – 23°20' TaurusMoonओ Oवा Va/Baवी Vi/Biवु Vu/Bu
5Mrigashīrsha (म्रृगशीर्षा)23°20' Taurus – 6°40' GeminiMarsवे Ve/Beवो Vo/Boका Kaकी Ke
6Ārdrā (आर्द्रा)6°40' – 20°00' GeminiRahuकु Kuघ Ghaङ Ng/Naछ Chha
7Punarvasu (पुनर्वसु)20°00' Gemini – 3°20' CancerJupiterके Keको Koहा Haही Hi
8Pushya (पुष्य)3°20' – 16°40' CancerSaturnहु Huहे Heहो Hoड Da
9Āshleshā (आश्लेषा)16°40' Cancer – 0°00' LeoMercuryडी Diडू Duडे Deडो Do
10Maghā (मघा)0°00' – 13°20' LeoKetuमा Maमी Miमू Muमे Me
11Pūrva or Pūrva Phalgunī (पूर्व फाल्गुनी)13°20' – 26°40' LeoVenusनो Moटा Taटी Tiटू Tu
12Uttara or Uttara Phalgunī (उत्तर फाल्गुनी)26°40' Leo – 10°00' VirgoSunटे Teटो Toपा Paपी Pi
13Hasta (हस्त)10°00' – 23°20' VirgoMoonपू Puष Shaण Naठ Tha
14Chitrā (चित्रा)23°20' Virgo – 6°40' LibraMarsपे Peपो Poरा Raरी Ri
15Svātī (स्वाती)6°40' – 20°00 LibraRahuरू Ruरे Reरो Roता Ta
16Vishākhā (विशाखा)20°00' Libra – 3°20' ScorpioJupiterती Tiतू Tuते Teतो To
17Anurādhā (अनुराधा)3°20' – 16°40' ScorpioSaturnना Naनी Niनू Nuने Ne
18Jyeshtha (ज्येष्ठा)16°40' Scorpio – 0°00' SagittariusMercuryनो Noया Yaयी Yiयू Yu
19Mūla (मूल)0°00' – 13°20' SagittariusKetuये Yeयो Yoभा Bhaभी Bhi
20Pūrva Ashādhā (पूर्वाषाढ़ा)13°20' – 26°40' SagittariusVenusभू Bhuधा Dhaफा Bha/Phaढा Dha
21Uttara Ashadha (उत्तराषाढ़ा)26°40' Sagittarius – 10°00' CapricornSunभे Bheभो Bhoजा Jaजी Ji
22Shravana (श्रवण)10°00' – 23°20' CapricornMoonखी Ju/Khiखू Je/Khuखे Jo/Kheखो Gha/Kho
23Shravishthā (धनिष्ठा) or Dhanistā23°20' Capricorn – 6°40' AquariusMarsगा Gaगी Giगु Guगे Ge
24Shatabhishā (शतभिषा)or Shatataraka6°40' – 20°00' AquariusRahuगो Goसा Saसी Siसू Su
25Pūrva Bhādrapadā (पूर्वभाद्रपदा)20°00' Aquarius – 3°20' PiscesJupiterसे Seसो Soदा Daदी Di
26Uttara Bhādrapadā (उत्तरभाद्रपदा)3°20' – 16°40' PiscesSaturnदू Duथ Thaझ Jhaञ Da/Tra
27Revatī (रेवती)16°40' – 30°00' PiscesMercuryदे Deदो Doच Chaची Chi

[edit] Daśā-s – the planetary periods

Dasha (Devanagari: दशा, Sanskrit,daśā, 'planetary period'.) The dasha system shows which planets will be ruling at particular times in Hindu astrology. There are several dasha systems; however, the primary system used by astrologers is the Vimshottari dasha system. The first maha dasha is determined by the position of the natal Moon. Each maha dasha is divided into subperiods called bhuktis. Vimshottari dasha lengths are:[11]:211
Maha DashaLengthBhuktis
Ketu7 YearsKetu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury
Venus20 YearsVenus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu
Sun6 YearsSun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus
Moon10 YearsMoon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun
Mars7 YearsMars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon
Rahu18 YearsRahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars
Jupiter16 YearsJupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu
Saturn19 YearsSaturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter
Mercury17 YearsMercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn

[edit] Drishtis – the planetary aspects

Main article: Astrological aspect (Hindu Astrology)
Drishti (Sanskrit: drishti, 'sight'.) In Hindu astrology, the aspect is to an entire sign, and grahas only cast forward aspects:[11]:26–27
Mars4th, 7th, 8th
Jupiter5th, 7th, 9th
Saturn3rd, 7th, 10th
Rahu5th, 7th, 9th
KetuNo planetary aspect

[edit] Gocharas – the transits

Gochara (Sanskrit: gochara, 'transit'.) In Hindu astrology, a natal chart shows the actual positions of the grahas at the moment of birth. Since that moment, the grahas have continued to move around the zodiac, interacting with the natal chart grahas. This period of interaction is called gochara.[11]:227

[edit] Yogas – the planetary combinations

Yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, 'union'.) In Hindu astrology, yogas are planetary combinations placed in specific relationships to each other.[11]:265
"There are many yogas in Hindu system, but predominantly in today's age the positive and negative yogas have to be seen in different context as far as situations are concerned. Some yogas like Kaal Sarp are referred to as bad, but there are many famous people and billionaires with Kaal Sarp yoga."

[edit] Dig bala – the directional strength

Dig bala (Sanskrit: dig bala, 'directional strength'.) Graha-s gain strength when they are placed in specific cardinal houses:[11]:25–26
1stJupiter, MercuryEast
4thVenus, MoonNorth
10thSun, MarsSouth

[edit] Horoscopy

[edit] Lagna – the ascendant

Lagna (Sanskrit: lagna, 'ascendant'.) Lagna is the first moment of contact between the soul and its new life on earth in Hindu astrology.[11]:96

[edit] Atmakaraka – the soul significator

Atmakaraka (Sanskrit: atmakaraka, from atma, 'soul', and karaka, 'significator' .) Atmakaraka is the significator of the soul's desire in Hindu astrology.[11]:326

[edit] Gandanta – the karmic knot

Gandanta (Sanskrit: gandanta, from gand, 'knot', and anta, 'end'.) Gandanta is a spiritual or karmic knot in Hindu astrology. Gandanta describes the junction points in the natal chart where the solar and lunar zodiacs meet, and are directly associated with times of soul growth.[11]:61–64

[edit] Ayanamsa – the zodiac conversion

Ayanamsa (Sanskrit: ayanāṃsa, from ayana, 'movement', and aṃsa, 'component') is the longitudinal difference between the Tropical (Sayana) and Sidereal (Nirayana) zodiacs.[11]:11

[edit] Moudhya – the combustion

Moudhya (Sanskrit: moudhya, 'combustion') is a planet that is in conjunction with the Sun. The degrees the planets are considered combust are:[11]:33

[edit] Saade saati – the critical transit

Saade saati, the transit of Saturn over the natal Moon (Saturn return), is the most important transit in a birth chart and takes approximately 7.5 years to complete. The transit begins when Saturn enters the house before the Moon, and ends when Saturn departs the house after the Moon. The most intense phase is when Saturn is 2–3° on either side of the Moon. The beginning of the transit will give an indication of the issues to be addressed. Saade saati results in a complete transformation, usually with a change in career or life direction.[11]:231-232

[edit] Modern India

David Pingree notes that astrology and traditional medicine are the two traditional sciences that have survived best in modern India, although both have been much transformed by their western counterparts.[14]
Astrology remains an important facet of Hindu folk belief in contemporary India. Many Hindus believe that heavenly bodies, including the planets, have an influence throughout the life of a human being, and these planetary influences are the "fruit of karma."[15] The Navagraha, planetary deities, are considered subordinate to Ishvara, i.e., the Supreme Being) in Hindu belief assist in the administration of justice.[15] Thus, these planets can influence earthly life.[15]

[edit] Status of astrology

In the early 2000s, under the Bharatiya Janata Party led government in India, astrology became a topic of political contention between the religious right and academic establishment, comparable to the "Creation science" debate in US education.
The University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government decided to introduce "Jyotir Vigyan" (i.e. jyotir vijñāna) or "Vedic astrology" as a discipline of study in Indian universities, backed up by a decision by the Andhra Pradesh High Court, despite widespread protests from the scientific community in India and Indian scientists working abroad.[16] In September of the same year, the Supreme Court of India issued a notice to the Ministry of Human Resource Development in reaction to a petition, stating that the introduction of astrology to university curricula is "a giant leap backwards, undermining whatever scientific credibility the country has achieved so far".[17]
In 2004, the Supreme Court dismissed a further petition, judging that the teaching of astrology does not qualify as promotion of religion.[18] In February 2011, the Bombay High Court reaffirmed astrology's standing in India when it dismissed a case which had challenged it status as a science.[19]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ triskandham jyautiṣam horā ganitam samhiteti ca BPHS 1.2
  2. ^ "In countries such as India, where only a small intellectual elite has been trained in Western physics, astrology manages to retain here and there its position among the sciences." David Pingree and Robert Gilbert, "Astrology; Astrology In India; Astrology in modern times" Encyclopædia Britannica 2008
  3. ^ Mohan Rao, Female foeticide: where do we go? Indian Journal of Medical Ethics Oct-Dec2001-9(4),; T. Jayaraman, A judicial blow, Frontline Volume 18 – Issue 12, Jun. 09 – 22, 2001
  4. ^ Kushal Siddhanta, "Some questions concerning the UGC course in astrology", Breakthrough, Vol.9, No.2, November 2001, p.3
  5. ^ Narlikar (2001)
  6. ^ P. Norelli-Bahelet (2002)
  7. ^ Pingree(1981), p.67ff, 81ff, 101ff
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Flood, Gavin. Yano, Michio. 2003. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden: Blackwell.
  9. ^ Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought", p385 ("The Yavanajataka is the earliest surviving Sanskrit text in horoscopy, and constitute the basis of all later Indian developments in horoscopy", himself quoting David Pingree "The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja" p5)
  10. ^ David Pingree, Jyotiḥśāstra (J. Gonda (Ed.) A History of Indian Literature, Vol VI Fasc 4), p.81
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Sutton, Komilla (1999). The Essentials of Vedic Astrology, The Wessex Astrologer Ltd, England[unreliable source?]
  12. ^ Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Monier-Williams, (c) 1899
  13. ^ Charak, Dr. K.S. (1996). Essentials of Medical Astrology, Uma Publications, pp.5–6.
  14. ^ David Pingree, review of G. Prakash, Science and the Imagination of Modern India, Journal of the American Oriental Society (2002), p. 154 f.
  15. ^ a b c Karma, an anthropological inquiry, pg. 134, at Google Books
  16. ^ T. Jayaraman, A judicial blow, Frontline Volume 18 – Issue 12, June 09 – 22, 2001
  17. ^ Supreme Court questions 'Jyotir Vigyan', Times of India, 3 September 2001
  18. ^ Supreme Court: Teaching of astrology no promotion of religion; Introduction of Vedic astrology courses in universities upheld
  19. ^ 'Astrology is a science: Bombay HC', The Times of India, 3 February 2011

[edit] Bibliography

  • Kim Plofker, "South Asian mathematics; The role of astronomy and astrology", Encyclopædia Britannica (online edition, 2008)
  • David Pingree and Robert Gilbert, "Astrology; Astrology In India; Astrology in modern times", Encyclopædia Britannica (online edition, 2008)
  • "Hindu Chronology" Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911)
  • David Pingree, "Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran", Isis – Journal of The History of Science Society (1963), 229–246.
  • David Pingree, Jyotiḥśāstra in J. Gonda (ed.) A History of Indian Literature, Vol VI, Fasc 4, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden (1981).
  • Ebenezer Burgess, "On the Origin of the Lunar Division of the Zodiac represented in the Nakshatra System of the Hindus", Journal of the American Oriental Society (1866).
  • William D. Whitney, "On the Views of Biot and Weber Respecting the Relations of the Hindu and Chinese Systems of Asterisms"", Journal of the American Oriental Society (1866).
  • Satish Chandra, "Religion and State in India and Search for Rationality", Social Scientist (2002).

[edit] External links

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