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Portrait of Francis Bacon, by Frans Pourbus (1617), Palace on the Water in Warsaw.
|Born||22 January 1561|
Strand, London, England
|Died||9 April 1626 (aged 65)|
Highgate, London, England
|Era||English Renaissance, The Scientific Revolution|
|School||Renaissance Philosophy, Empiricism|
Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism. His works established and popularised inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method, or simply the scientific method. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today.
Bacon was knighted in 1603, and created both the Baron Verulam in 1618 and the Viscount St. Alban in 1621;[b] as he died without heirs, both peerages became extinct upon his death. He famously died by contracting pneumonia while studying the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat.
 Early lifeYork House near the Strand in London, the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon by his second wife Anne (Cooke) Bacon, the daughter of noted humanist Anthony Cooke. His mother's sister was married to William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, making Burghley Francis Bacon's uncle. Biographers believe that Bacon was educated at home in his early years owing to poor health (which plagued him throughout his life), receiving tuition from John Walsall, a graduate of Oxford with a strong leaning towards Puritanism. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, on 5 April 1573 at the age of twelve, living for three years there together with his older brother Anthony Bacon under the personal tutelage of Dr John Whitgift, future Archbishop of Canterbury. Bacon's education was conducted largely in Latin and followed the medieval curriculum. He was also educated at the University of Poitiers. It was at Cambridge that he first met Queen Elizabeth, who was impressed by his precocious intellect, and was accustomed to calling him "the young Lord Keeper".
His studies brought him to the belief that the methods and results of science as then practised were erroneous. His reverence for Aristotle conflicted with his loathing of Aristotelian philosophy, which seemed to him barren, disputatious, and wrong in its objectives.
Gray's Inn. A few months later, Francis went abroad with Sir Amias Paulet, the English ambassador at Paris, while Anthony continued his studies at home. The state of government and society in France under Henry III afforded him valuable political instruction. For the next three years he visited Blois, Poitiers, Tours, Italy, and Spain. During his travels, Bacon studied language, statecraft, and civil law while performing routine diplomatic tasks. On at least one occasion he delivered diplomatic letters to England for Walsingham, Burghley, and Leicester, as well as for the queen.
The sudden death of his father in February 1579 prompted Bacon to return to England. Sir Nicholas had laid up a considerable sum of money to purchase an estate for his youngest son, but he died before doing so, and Francis was left with only a fifth of that money. Having borrowed money, Bacon got into debt. To support himself, he took up his residence in law at Gray's Inn in 1579.
 ParliamentarianBacon had three goals: to uncover truth, to serve his country, and to serve his church. He sought to further these ends by seeking a prestigious post. In 1580, through his uncle, Lord Burghley, he applied for a post at court which might enable him to pursue a life of learning. His application failed. For two years he worked quietly at Gray's Inn, until he was admitted as an outer barrister in 1582.
Bossiney, Devon in a 1581 by-election. In 1584, he took his seat in parliament for Melcombe in Dorset, and subsequently for Taunton (1586). At this time, he began to write on the condition of parties in the church, as well as on the topic of philosophical reform in the lost tract, Temporis Partus Maximus. Yet he failed to gain a position he thought would lead him to success. He showed signs of sympathy to Puritanism, attending the sermons of the Puritan chaplain of Gray's Inn and accompanying his mother to the Temple Church to hear Walter Travers. This led to the publication of his earliest surviving tract, which criticised the English church's suppression of the Puritan clergy. In the Parliament of 1586, he openly urged execution for Mary, Queen of Scots.
About this time, he again approached his powerful uncle for help; this move was followed by his rapid progress at the bar. He became Bencher in 1586, and he was elected a reader in 1587, delivering his first set of lectures in Lent the following year. In 1589, he received the valuable appointment of reversion to the Clerkship of the Star Chamber, although he did not formally take office until 1608 – a post which was worth £16,000 a year.
In 1588 he became MP for Liverpool and then for Middlesex in 1593. He later sat three times for Ipswich (1597, 1601, 1604) and once for Cambridge University (1614).
He became known as a liberal-minded reformer, eager to amend and simplify the law. He opposed feudal privileges and dictatorial powers, though a friend of the crown. He was against religious persecution. He struck at the House of Lords in their usurpation of the Money Bills. He advocated for the union of England and Scotland, thus being one of the influences behind the consolidation of the United Kingdom; and also advocated, later on, for the integration of Ireland into the Union. Closer constitutional ties, he believed, would bring greater peace and strength to these countries.
 Attorney GeneralRobert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth's favourite. By 1591, he acted as the earl's confidential adviser.
In 1592, he was commissioned to write a tract in response to the Jesuit Robert Parson's anti-government polemic, which he titled Certain observations made upon a libel, identifying England with the ideals of democratic Athens against the belligerence of Spain.
Bacon took his third parliamentary seat for Middlesex when in February 1593 Elizabeth summoned Parliament to investigate a Roman Catholic plot against her. Bacon's opposition to a bill that would levy triple subsidies in half the usual time offended many people.[clarification needed] Opponents accused him of seeking popularity. For a time, the royal court excluded him.
When the Attorney-Generalship fell vacant in 1594, Lord Essex's influence was not enough to secure Bacon that office. Likewise, Bacon failed to secure the lesser office of Solicitor-General in 1595. To console him for these disappointments, Essex presented him with a property at Twickenham, which he sold subsequently for £1,800.
In 1596, Bacon became Queen's Counsel, but missed the appointment of Master of the Rolls. During the next few years, his financial situation remained bad. His friends could find no public office for him, and a scheme for retrieving his position by a marriage with the wealthy and young widow Lady Elizabeth Hatton failed after she broke off their relationship upon accepting marriage to a wealthier man. In 1598 Bacon was arrested for debt. Afterwards however, his standing in the Queen's eyes improved. Gradually, Bacon earned the standing of one of the learned counsels, though he had no commission or warrant and received no salary. His relationship with the Queen further improved when he severed ties with Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, a shrewd move because Essex was executed for treason in 1601.
With others, Bacon was appointed to investigate the charges against Essex, his former friend and benefactor. A number of Essex's followers confessed that Essex had planned a rebellion against the Queen. Bacon was subsequently a part of the legal team headed by Attorney General Sir Edward Coke at Essex's treason trial. After the execution, the Queen ordered Bacon to write the official government account of the trial, which was later published as A DECLARATION of the Practices and Treasons attempted and committed by Robert late Earle of Essex and his Complices, against her Majestie and her Kingdoms ... after Bacon's first draft was heavily edited by the Queen and her ministers.
According to his personal secretary and chaplain, William Rawley, as a judge Bacon was always tender-hearted, "looking upon the examples with the eye of severity, but upon the person with the eye of pity and compassion". And also that "he was free from malice", "no revenger of injuries", and "no defamer of any man".
 James I comes to the throneThe succession of James I brought Bacon into greater favour. He was knighted in 1603. In another shrewd move, Bacon wrote his Apologie in defence of his proceedings in the case of Essex, as Essex had favoured James to succeed to the throne.
The following year, during the course of the uneventful first parliament session, Bacon married Alice Barnham. In June 1607 he was at last rewarded with the office of Solicitor-General. The following year, he began working as the Clerkship of the Star Chamber. In spite of a generous income, old debts still couldn't be paid. He sought further promotion and wealth by supporting King James and his arbitrary policies.
In 1610 the fourth session of James' first parliament met. Despite Bacon's advice to him, James and the Commons found themselves at odds over royal prerogatives and the king's embarrassing extravagance. The House was finally dissolved in February 1611. Throughout this period Bacon managed to stay in the favour of the king while retaining the confidence of the Commons.
In 1613, Bacon was finally appointed attorney general, after advising the king to shuffle judicial appointments. As attorney general, Bacon successfully prosecuted Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset and his wife, Frances Howard, Countess of Somerset for murder in 1616. The so-called "Prince's Parliament" of April 1614 objected to Bacon's presence in the seat for Cambridge and to the various royal plans which Bacon had supported. Although he was allowed to stay, parliament passed a law that forbade the attorney-general to sit in parliament. His influence over the king had evidently inspired resentment or apprehension in many of his peers. Bacon, however, continued to receive the King's favour, which led to his appointment in March 1617 as the temporary Regent of England (for a period of a month), and in 1618 as Lord Chancellor. On 12 July 1618 the king created Bacon Baron Verulam, of Verulam, in the Peerage of England. As a new peer he then styled himself as "Francis, Lord Verulam".
Bacon continued to use his influence with the king to mediate between the throne and Parliament and in this capacity he was further elevated in the same peerage, as Viscount St Alban, on 27 January 1621.[a]
 Lord Chancellor and public disgraceTower of London during the king's pleasure; the imprisonment lasted only a few days and the fine was remitted by the king. More seriously, parliament declared Bacon incapable of holding future office or sitting in parliament. He narrowly escaped undergoing degradation, which would have stripped him of his titles of nobility. Subsequently the disgraced viscount devoted himself to study and writing.
There seems little doubt that Bacon had accepted gifts from litigants, but this was an accepted custom of the time and not necessarily evidence of deeply corrupt behaviour. While acknowledging that his conduct had been lax, he countered that he had never allowed gifts to influence his judgement and, indeed, he had on occasion given a verdict against those who had paid him. The true reason for his acknowledgement of guilt is the subject of debate, but it may have been prompted by his sickness, or by a view that through his fame and the greatness of his office he would be spared harsh punishment. He may even have been blackmailed, with a threat to charge him with sodomy, into confession.
The British jurist Basil Montagu wrote in Bacon's defense, concerning the episode of his public disgrace:
Bacon has been accused of servility, of dissimulation, of various base motives, and their filthy brood of base actions, all unworthy of his high birth, and incompatible with his great wisdom, and the estimation in which he was held by the noblest spirits of the age. It is true that there were men in his own time, and will be men in all times, who are better pleased to count spots in the sun than to rejoice in its glorious brightness. Such men have openly libelled him, like Dewes and Weldon, whose falsehoods were detected as soon as uttered, or have fastened upon certain ceremonious compliments and dedications, the fashion of his day, as a sample of his servility, passing over his noble letters to the Queen, his lofty contempt for the Lord Keeper Puckering, his open dealing with Sir Robert Cecil, and with others, who, powerful when he was nothing, might have blighted his opening fortunes for ever, forgetting his advocacy of the rights of the people in the face of the court, and the true and honest counsels, always given by him, in times of great difficulty, both to Elizabeth and her successor. When was a "base sycophant" loved and honoured by piety such as that of Herbert, Tennison, and Rawley, by noble spirits like Hobbes, Ben Jonson, and Selden, or followed to the grave, and beyond it, with devoted affection such as that of Sir Thomas Meautys.
 Personal lifeElizabeth Hatton, a young widow of 20. Reportedly, she broke off their relationship upon accepting marriage to a wealthier man—Edward Coke. Years later, Bacon still wrote of his regret that the marriage to Hatton had not taken place.
At the age of forty-five, Bacon married Alice Barnham, the fourteen-year-old daughter of a well-connected London alderman and MP. Bacon wrote two sonnets proclaiming his love for Alice. The first was written during his courtship and the second on his wedding day, 10 May 1606. When Bacon was appointed Lord Chancellor, "by special Warrant of the King", Lady Bacon was given precedence over all other Court ladies.
Reports of increasing friction in his marriage to Alice appeared, with speculation that some of this may have been due to financial resources not being as readily available to her as she was accustomed to having in the past. Alice was reportedly interested in fame and fortune, and when reserves of money were no longer available, there were complaints about where all the money was going. Alice Chambers Bunten wrote in her Life of Alice Barnham that, upon their descent into debt, she actually went on trips to ask for financial favours and assistance from their circle of friends. Bacon disinherited her upon discovering her secret romantic relationship with Sir John Underhill. He rewrote his will, which had previously been very generous to her (leaving her lands, goods, and income), revoking it all.
Bacon's personal secretary and chaplain, William Rawley, however, wrote in his biography of Bacon that his inter-marriage with Alice Barnham was one of "much conjugal love and respect", mentioning a robe of honour that he gave to her, and which "she wore unto her dying day, being twenty years and more after his death".
John Aubrey noted in his Brief Lives concerning Bacon, "He was a Pederast. His Ganimeds and Favourites tooke Bribes", biographers continue to debate about Bacon's sexual inclinations and the precise nature of his personal relationships.[c] Several authors believe that despite his marriage Bacon was primarily attracted to the same sex. Professor Forker for example has explored the "historically documentable sexual preferences" of both King James and Bacon – and concluded they were all oriented to "masculine love", a contemporary term that "seems to have been used exclusively to refer to the sexual preference of men for members of their own gender." The Jacobean antiquarian, Sir Simonds D'Ewes implied there had been a question of bringing him to trial for buggery.
This conclusion has been disputed by others, who point to lack of consistent evidence, and consider the sources to be more open to interpretation. In his "New Atlantis", Bacon describes his utopian island as being "the chastest nation under heaven", in which there was no prostitution or adultery, and further saying that "as for masculine love, they have no touch of it".
 DeathOn 9 April 1626 Bacon died of pneumonia while at Arundel mansion at Highgate outside London. An influential account of the circumstances of his death was given by John Aubrey's Brief Lives. Aubrey has been criticised for his evident credulousness in this and other works; on the other hand, he knew Thomas Hobbes, Bacon's fellow-philosopher and friend. Aubrey's vivid account, which portrays Bacon as a martyr to experimental scientific method, had him journeying to Highgate through the snow with the King's physician when he is suddenly inspired by the possibility of using the snow to preserve meat: "They were resolved they would try the experiment presently. They alighted out of the coach and went into a poor woman's house at the bottom of Highgate hill, and bought a fowl, and made the woman exenterate it".
After stuffing the fowl with snow, Bacon contracted a fatal case of pneumonia. Some people, including Aubrey, consider these two contiguous, possibly coincidental events as related and causative of his death: "The Snow so chilled him that he immediately fell so extremely ill, that he could not return to his Lodging ... but went to the Earle of Arundel's house at Highgate, where they put him into ... a damp bed that had not been layn-in ... which gave him such a cold that in 2 or 3 days as I remember Mr Hobbes told me, he died of Suffocation."
Being unwittingly on his deathbed, the philosopher wrote his last letter to his absent host and friend Lord Arundel:
My very good Lord,—I was likely to have had the fortune of Caius Plinius the elder, who lost his life by trying an experiment about the burning of Mount Vesuvius; for I was also desirous to try an experiment or two touching the conservation and induration of bodies. As for the experiment itself, it succeeded excellently well; but in the journey between London and Highgate, I was taken with such a fit of casting as I know not whether it were the Stone, or some surfeit or cold, or indeed a touch of them all three. But when I came to your Lordship's House, I was not able to go back, and therefore was forced to take up my lodging here, where your housekeeper is very careful and diligent about me, which I assure myself your Lordship will not only pardon towards him, but think the better of him for it. For indeed your Lordship's House was happy to me, and I kiss your noble hands for the welcome which I am sure you give me to it. I know how unfit it is for me to write with any other hand than mine own, but by my troth my fingers are so disjointed with sickness that I cannot steadily hold a pen."Another account appears in a biography by William Rawley, Bacon's personal secretary and chaplain:
He died on the ninth day of April in the year 1626, in the early morning of the day then celebrated for our Saviour's resurrection, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, at the Earl of Arundel's house in Highgate, near London, to which place he casually repaired about a week before; God so ordaining that he should die there of a gentle fever, accidentally accompanied with a great cold, whereby the defluxion of rheum fell so plentifully upon his breast, that he died by suffocation.At the news of his death, over thirty great minds collected together their eulogies of him, which was then later published in Latin.
He left personal assets of about £7,000 and lands that realised £6,000 when sold. His debts amounted to more than £23,000, equivalent to more than £3m at current value.
 Philosophy and WorksFrancis Bacon's Philosophy is displayed in the vast and varied writings he left, which might be divided in three great branches:
- Scientifical works - in which his ideas for an universal reform of knowledge, scientific method and the improvement of mankind's state are presented.
- Religious/literary works - in which he presents his moral philosophy and theological meditations.
- Juridical works - in which his reforms in Law are proposed.
 ScienceBacon's ideas were influential in the 1630s and 1650s among scholars, in particular Sir Thomas Browne, who in his encyclopaedia Pseudodoxia Epidemica (1646–1672) frequently adheres to a Baconian approach to his scientific enquiries. During the Restoration, Bacon was commonly invoked as a guiding spirit of the Royal Society founded under Charles II in 1660. In the nineteenth century his emphasis on induction was revived and developed by William Whewell, among others. He has been reputed as the "Father of Experimental Science".
Bacon is also considered to be the philosophical influence behind the dawning of the Industrial age. In his works, Bacon called for a "spring of a progeny of inventions, which shall overcome, to some extent, and subdue our needs and miseries", always proposing that all scientific work should be done for charitable purposes, as matter of alleviating mankind's misery, and that therefore science should be practical and have as purpose the inventing of useful things for the improvement of mankind's estate. This changed the course of science in history, from a merely contemplative state, as it was found in ancient and medieval ages, to a practical, inventive state - that would have eventually led to the inventions that made possible the Industrial Revolutions of the following centuries.
The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history. In the two centuries following 1800, the world's average per capita income increased over tenfold, while the world's population increased over sixfold. In the words of Nobel Prize winner Robert E. Lucas, Jr., "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before".
He also wrote a long treatise on Medicine, History of Life and Death, with natural and experimental observations for the prolongation of life.
For one of his biographers, Hepworth Dixon, Bacon's influence in modern world is so great that every man who rides in a train, sends a telegram, follows a steam plough, sits in an easy chair, crosses the channel or the Atlantic, eats a good dinner, enjoys a beautiful garden, or undergoes a painless surgical operation, owes him something.
 North AmericaSome authors[who?] believe that Bacon's vision for a Utopian New World in North America was laid out in his novel New Atlantis, which depicts a mythical island, Bensalem, located somewhere between Peru and Japan. In this work he depicted a land where there would be freedom of religion - showing a Jew treated fairly and equally in an island of Christians, but it has been debated whether this work had influenced others reforms, such as greater rights for women, the abolition of slavery, elimination of debtors' prisons, separation of church and state, and freedom of political expression, although there is no hint of these reforms in The New Atlantis itself. His propositions of legal reform (which were not established in his life time), though, are considered to have been one of the influences behind the Napoleonic Code, and therefore could show some resemblance with or influence in the drafting of other liberal constitutions that came in the centuries after Bacon's lifetime, such as the American.
Virginia, the Carolinas, and Newfoundland in northeastern Canada. His government report on "The Virginia Colony" was submitted in 1609. In 1610 Bacon and his associates received a charter from the king to form the Tresurer and the Companye of Adventurers and planter of the Cittye of London and Bristoll for the Collonye or plantacon in Newfoundland and sent John Guy to found a colony there. In 1910 Newfoundland issued a postage stamp to commemorate Bacon's role in establishing the province. The stamp describes Bacon as, "the guiding spirit in Colonization Schemes in 1610." Moreover, some scholars believe he was largely responsible for the drafting, in 1609 and 1612, of two charters of government for the Virginia Colony. Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence, wrote: "Bacon, Locke and Newton. I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences".[d] Historian and biographer William Hepworth Dixon considered that Bacon's name could be included in the list of Founders of the United States of America.
It is also believed by the Rosicrucian organization AMORC, that Bacon would have influenced a settlement of mystics in North America, stating that his work "The New Atlantis" inspired a colony of Rosicrucians led by Johannes Kelpius, to journey across the Atlantic Ocean in a chartered vessel called Sarah Mariah, and move on to Pennsylvania in late XVII Century. According to their claims, these rosicrucian communities "made valuable contributions to the newly emerging American culture in the fields of printing, philosophy, the sciences and arts".
Johannes Kelpius and his fellows moved to Wissahickon Creek, in Pennsylvania, and became known as "Hermits of Mystics of the Wissahickon" or simply "Monks of the Wissahickon".
 LawNew Scientist, in a publication of 1961, as having influenced the drafting of the Code Napoleon, and the law reforms introduced by Sir Robert Peel.
The historian William Hepworth Dixon referred to the Code Napoleon as "the sole embodiment of Bacon's thought", saying that Bacon's legal work "has had more success abroad than it has found at home", and that in France "it has blossomed and come into fruit".
The scholar Harvey Wheeler attributed to Bacon, in his work "Francis Bacon's Verulamium - the Common Law Template of The Modern in English Science and Culture", the creation of these distinguishing features of the modern common law system:
- Using cases as repositories of evidence about the "unwritten law";
- Determining the relevance of precedents by exclusionary principles of evidence and logic;
- Treating opposing legal briefs as adversarial hypotheses about the application of the "unwritten law" to a new set of facts.
In brief, Bacon is considered by some jurists[who?] to be the father of modern Jurisprudence.
Political scientist James McClellan, from the University of Virginia, considered Bacon to have had "a great following" in the American colonies.
 Historical debates
 Bacon and ShakespeareThe Baconian theory of Shakespearean authorship, first proposed in the mid-19th century, contends that Sir Francis Bacon wrote some or all the plays conventionally attributed to William Shakespeare, in opposition to the scholarly consensus that William Shakespeare of Stratford was the author.
 Occult theoriesFrancis Bacon often gathered with the men at Gray's Inn to discuss politics and philosophy, and to try out various theatrical scenes that he admitted writing. Bacon's alleged connection to the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons has been widely discussed by authors and scholars in many books. However others, including Daphne du Maurier (in her biography of Bacon), have argued there is no substantive evidence to support claims of involvement with the Rosicrucians. Frances Yates does not make the claim that Bacon was a Rosicrucian, but presents evidence that he was nevertheless involved in some of the more closed intellectual movements of his day. She argues that Bacon's movement for the advancement of learning was closely connected with the German Rosicrucian movement, while Bacon's New Atlantis portrays a land ruled by Rosicrucians. He apparently saw his own movement for the advancement of learning to be in conformity with Rosicrucian ideals.
Rosicrucian Manifestos and Bacon's plan of a "Great Instauration", for the two were calling for a reformation of both "divine and human understanding",[e] as well as both had in view the purpose of mankind's return to the "state before the Fall".[f][g]
Another major link is said to be the resemblance between Bacon's "New Atlantis" and the German Rosicrucian Johann Valentin Andreae's "Description of the Republic of Christianopolis (1619)". In his book, Andreae shows an utopic island in which Christian theosophy and applied science ruled, and in which the spiritual fulfillment and intellectual activity constituted the primary goals of each individual, the scientific pursuits being the highest intellectual calling – linked to the achievement of spiritual perfection. Andreae's island also depicts a great advancement in technology, with many industries separated in different zones which supplied the population's needs – which shows great resemblance to Bacon's scientific methods and purposes.
The Rosicrucian organization AMORC claims that Francis Bacon was the "Imperator" (leader) of the Rosicrucian Order in both England and the European continent, and would have directed it at that time of the Renaissance.
Francis Bacon's influence can also be seen on a variety of religious and spiritual authors, and on groups that have utilised his writings in their own belief systems.
 See also
- Cestui que (Defense and Comment on Chudleigh's Case)
- Essays (Francis Bacon)
- Francis Bacon School
- New Atlantis
- Novum Organum Scientiarum
- Pseudodoxia Epidemica
- Scientific method
- The works of Francis Bacon
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Notes on the State of Christendom (1582)
- Letter of Advice to the Queen (1585-6)
- An Advertisement Touching the Controversies of the Church of England (1586-9)
- Dumb show in the Gray's Inn Christmas Revels (1587-8)
- Misfortunes of Arthur (1588)
- A Conference of Pleasure : In Praise of Knowledge, In Praise of Fortitude, In Praise of Love, In Praise of Truth. (1592)
- Certain Observations made upon a Libel (1592)
- Temporis Partus Maximus ('The Greatest Birth of Time') (1593)
- A True Report of the Detestable Treason intended by Dr Roderigo Lopez (1594)
- The Device of the Indian Prince : Squire, Hermit, Soldier, Statesman. (1594)
- Gray's Inn Christmas/New Year Revels: The High and Mighty Prince Henry, Prince of Purpoole ( 1594-5) (See Gesta Grayorum)
- The Honourable Order of the Knights of the Helmet (1595)(See Gesta Grayorum)
- The Sussex Speech (1595)
- The Philautia Device (1595)
- Maxims of the Law (1596)
- Essays (1st ed.) (1597)
- The Colours of Good and Evil (1597)
- Meditationes Sacrae (1597)
- Declaration of the Practices and Treasons attempted and Committed by the late Earl of Essex (1601)
- Valerius Terminus of the Interpretation of Nature (1603)
- A Brief Discourse touching the Happy Union of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland (1603)
- Cogitations de Natura Rerum ('Thoughts on the Nature of Things') (1604)
- Apologie concerning the late Earl of Essex (1604)
- Certain Considerations touching the better pacification and Edification of the Church of England (1604)
- The Advancement and Proficience of Learning Divine and Human (1605)
- Temporis Masculus Partus ('The Masculine Birth of Time') (1605)
- Filium Labyrinthi sive Formula Inquisitionis (1606)
- In Felicem Memoriam Elizabethae ('In Happy Memory of Queen Elizabeth') (1606)
- Cogitata et Visa de Interpetatione Naturae ('Thoughts and Conclusions on the Interpretation of Nature') (1607)
- Redargiutio Philosophiarum ('The Refutation of Philosophies') (1608)
- The Plantation of Ireland (1608-9)
- De Sapientia Veterum ('Wisdom of the Ancients') (1609)
- Descriptio Globi Intellectualis ('A Description of the Intellectual Globe') (1612)
- Thema Coeli ('Theory of the Heavens') (1612)
- Essays (2nd edition –38 essays) (1612)
- Marriage of the River Thames to the Rhine (masque performed by Gray's Inn and Inner Temple lawyers on the river and in Westminster Hall in celebration of the marriage of Princess Elizabeth to Prince Frederick, Elector Palatine) (1613)
- Charge…touching Duels (1614)
- The Masque of Flowers (performed by Gray's Inn before the King at Whitehall to honour the marriage of the Earl of Somerset to Frances Howard, Countess of Essex) (1614)
- Instauratio Magna ('Great Instauration') (1620)
- Novum Organum Scientiarum ('New Method') (1620)
- Historia Naturalis ('Natural History') (1622)
- Introduction to six Natural Histories (1622)
- Historia Ventorum ('History of Winds') (1622)
- History of the Reign of King Henry VII (1622)
- Abcedarium Naturae (1622)
- De Augmentis Scientiarum (1623)
- Historia Vitae et Mortis ('History of Life and Death') (1623)
- Historia Densi et Rari ('History of Density and Rarity') (1623)
- Historia Gravis et Levis ('History of Gravity and Levity') (1623)
- History of the Sympathy and Antipathy of Things (1623)
- History of Sulphur, Salt and Mercury (1623)
- A Discourse of a War with Spain (1623)
- An Advertisement touching an Holy War (1623)
- A Digest of the Laws of England (1623)
- Cogitationes de Natura Rerum ('Thoughts on the Nature of Things') (1624)
- De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris ('Of the Ebb and Flow of the Sea') (1624)
- Essays, or Counsels Civil and Moral (3rd/final edition – 58 essays) (1625)
- Apothegms New and Old (1625)
- Translation of Certain Psalms into English Verse (1625)
- Revision of De Sapientia Veterum ('Wisdom of the Ancients') (1625)
- Inquisitio de Magnete ('Enquiries into Magnetism') (1625)
- Topica Inquisitionis de Luce et Lumine ('Topical Inquisitions into Light and Luminosity') (1625)
- New Atlantis (1627)
- Sylva Sylvarum, or Natural History (1627)
- Certain Miscellany Works (1629)
- Use of the Law (1629)
- Elements of the Common Laws (1629)
- Operum Moralium et Civilium (1638)
- Dialogum de Bello Sacro (1638)
- Cases of Treason (1641)
- Confession of Faith (1641)
- Speech concerning Naturalisation (1641)
- Office of Constables (1641)
- Discourse concerning Church Affairs (1641)
- An Essay of a King (1642)
- The Learned Reading of Sir Francis Bacon (to Gray's Inn) (1642)
- Ordinances (1642)
- Relation of the Poisoning of Overbury. (1651)
- Scripta in Naturali et Universali Philosophia (1653)
- Scala Intellectus sive Filum Labyrinthi (1653)
- Prodromi sive Anticipationes Philosophiae Secundae (1653)
- Cogitationes de Natura Rerum (1653)
- De Fluxu et Refluxu Maris (1653)
- The Mirror of State and Eloquence (1656)
- Opuscula Varia Posthuma, Philosophica, Civilia et Theologia (1658)
- Letter of Advice to the Duke of Buckingham (1661)
- Charge given for the Verge (1662)
- Baconiana, Or Certain Genuine Remains Of Sr. Francis Bacon (1679)
- Abcedarium Naturae, or a Metaphysical piece (1679)
- Letters and Remains (1734)
- Promus (1861)
- There is some confusion over the spelling of "Viscount St. Alban" Some sources such as the Dictionary of National Biography (1885) and the Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed., 1911) spell the title with "St. Albans" others such as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2007) spell it "St. Alban" (Fowler 1885, p. 346; Chisholm 1911; Peltonen 2007).
- Contemporary spelling, used by Bacon himself in his letter of thanks to the king for his elevation. Birch, Thomas (1763). Letters, Speeches, Charges, Advices, &c of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 6. London: Andrew Millar. pp. 271–2. OCLC 228676038.
- See opposing opinions of: A. L. Rowse, Homosexuals in History, New York: Carroll & Garf, 1977. page 44; Jardine, Lisa; Stewart, Alan Hostage To Fortune: The Troubled Life of Francis Bacon Hill & Wang, 1999. page 148; Nieves Mathews, Francis Bacon: The History of a Character Assassination, Yale University Press, 1996; Ross Jackson, The Companion to Shaker of the Speare: The Francis Bacon Story, England: Book Guild Publishing, 2005. pages 45 – 46
- "Bacon, Locke and Newton, whose pictures I will trouble you to have copied for me: and as I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical & Moral sciences" ("The Letters of Thomas Jefferson: 1743–1826 Bacon, Locke, and Newton". http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/P/tj3/writings/brf/jefl74.htm. Retrieved 13 June 2009. ).
- "Howbeit we know after a time there wil now be a general reformation, both of divine and humane things, according to our desire, and the expectation of others: for it's fitting, that before the rising of the Sun, there should appear and break forth Aurora, or some clearness, or divine light in the sky" – Fama Fraternitatis http://www.sacred-texts.com/sro/rhr/rhr06.htm
- "Like good and faithful guardians, we may yield up their fortune to mankind upon the emancipation and majority of their understanding, from which must necessarily follow an improvement of their estate [...]. For man, by the fall, fell at the same time from his state of innocency and from his dominion over creation. Both of these losses however can even in this life be in some part repaired; the former by religion and faith, the latter by arts and sciences. – Francis Bacon, Novum Organum
- "We ought therefore here to observe well, and make it known unto everyone, that God hath certainly and most assuredly concluded to send and grant to the whole world before her end ... such a truth, light, life, and glory, as the first man Adam had, which he lost in Paradise, after which his successors were put and driven, with him, to misery. Wherefore there shall cease all servitude, falsehood, lies, and darkness, which by little and little, with the great world's revolution, was crept into all arts, works, and governments of men, and have darkened most part of them". – Confessio Fraternitatis
- Peltonen 2007.
- Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). "Bacon, Francis". Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Collins, Arthur (1741). The English Baronetage: Containing a Genealogical and Historical Account of All the English Baronets, Now Existing: Their Descents, Marriages, and Issues; Memorable Actions, Both in War, and Peace; Religious and Charitable Donations; Deaths, Places of Burial and Monumental Inscriptions [sic]. Printed for Tho. Wotton at the Three Daggers and Queen's Head. p. 5.
- Peltonen 2007.
- "History of Parliament". http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/bacon-francis-1561-1626. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- Spedding, James. "The letters and life of Francis Bacon" (1861).
- Nieves Matthews, Francis Bacon: The History of a Character Assassination (Yale University Press, 1996)
- Matthews (1996: 56–57)
- Rawley, William (1670). The Life of the Right Honorable Francis Bacon Baron of Verulam, Viscount ST. Alban. London: Thomas Johns,, London. http://hiwaay.net/~paul/bacon/biographies/rawley.html.
- Parris, Matthew; Maguire, Kevin (2004). "Francis Bacon—1621". Great Parliamentary Scandals. London: Chrysalis. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-86105-736-5.
- Zagorin, Perez (1999). Francis Bacon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-691-00966-7.
- Historian A. L. Rowse, quoted in Parris; Maguire (2004: 8): "a charge of sodomy was...to be brought against the sixty-year-old Lord Chancellor".
- Montagu, Basil (1837). Essays and Selections. pp. 325, 326. ISBN 978-1-4368-3777-4.
- Alfred Dodd, Francis Bacon's Personal Life Story', Volume 2 – The Age of James, England: Rider & Co., 1949, 1986. pages 157 – 158, 425, 502 – 503, 518 – 532
- Alice Chambers Bunten, Life of Alice Barnham, Wife of Sir Francis Bacon, London: Oliphants Ltd. 1928.
- Oliver Lawson Dick, ed. Aubrey's Brief Lives. Edited from the Original Manuscripts, 1949, s.v. "Francis Bacon, Viscount of St. Albans" p. 11.
- A. L. Rowse, Homosexuals in History, New York: Carroll & Garf, 1977. page 44
- Jardine, Lisa; Stewart, Alan Hostage To Fortune: The Troubled Life of Francis Bacon Hill & Wang, 1999. page 148
- Charles R. Forker, Masculine Love, Renaissance Writing, and the New Invention of Homosexuality: An Addendum in the Journal of Homosexuality (1996), Indiana University
- Journal of Homosexuality, Volume: 31 Issue: 3, 1996, pages 85–93, ISSN: 0091-8369
- Fulton Anderson, Francis Bacon:His career and his thought, Los Angeles, 1962
- Ross Jackson, The Companion to Shaker of the Speare: The Francis Bacon Story, England: Book Guild Publishing, 2005. pages 45 – 46
- Bryan Bevan, The Real Francis Bacon, England: Centaur Press, 1960
- Helen Veale, Son of England, India: Indo Polish Library, 1950
- Peter Dawkins, Dedication to the Light, England: Francis Bacon Research Trust, 1984
- Bacon, Francis. The New Atlantis. 1627
- Bacon, The Works of Francis Bacon, Lord Chancellor of England. A new Edition, ed. Basil Montagu, London: 1825–1834
- William Rawley (Bacon's personal secretary and chaplain) Resuscitatio, or, Bringing into Publick Light Several Pieces of the Works, Civil, Historical, Philosophical, & Theological, Hitherto Sleeping; of the Right Honourable Francis Bacon....Together with his Lordship's Life 1657. "Francis Bacon, the glory of his age and nation, the adorner and ornament of learning, was born in York House, or York Place, in the Strand, on the two and twentieth day of January, in the year of our Lord 1560."
- W.G.C. Gundry, ed. Manes Verulamani. This important volume consists of 32 eulogies originally published in Latin shortly after Bacon's funeral in 1626. Bacon's peers refer to him as "a supreme poet" and "a concealed poet," and also link him with the theatre.
- Lovejoy, Benjamin (1888). Francis Bacon: A Critical Review. London: Unwin. p. 171. OCLC 79886184.
- Officer, Lawrence; Williamson, Samuel. "Purchasing Power of British Pounds from 1264 to Present". Measuring Worth.com. http://www.measuringworth.com/ppoweruk/. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
- Julian Martin, Francis Bacon: The State and the Reform of Natural Philosophy, 1992
- Byron Steel, Sir Francis Bacon: The First Modern Mind, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran and Co., Inc., 1930
- Peter Urbach, Francis Bacon's Philosophy of Science, Open Court Publishing Co., 1987. A study which argues from a close consideration of Bacon's actual words in context, that he was immensely more sophisticated and modern than is generally allowed. Bacon's reputation as a philosopher of science has sunk since the 17th and early 18th centuries, when he was accorded the title "Father of Experimental Philosophy".
- Bacon, Francis. "The Great Instauration". Instauratio Magna. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Great_Instauration.
- Farrington, Benjamin. "Francis Bacon, philosopher of industrial science" (1951). ISBN 978-0-374-92706-6
- Maddison, Angus (2003). The World Economy: Historical Statistics. Paris: Development Centre, OECD. pp. 256–62, Tables 8a and 8c..
- Lucas, Robert E., Jr. (2002). Lectures on Economic Growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 109–10. ISBN 978-0-674-01601-9.
- Bacon, Francis (2003-06-01). History of Life and Death. ISBN 9780766162723. http://books.google.com/?id=dW5lJ9-LeBAC.
- Hepworth Dixon, William (1862). "The story of Lord Bacon's Life" (1862).. http://books.google.com/?id=zd05AAAAcAAJ&pg=PP1&dq=the+story+of+lord+bacon's+life+hepworth+dixon.
- Harvey Wheeler, Francis Bacon's Case of the Post-Nati:(1608); Foundations of Anglo-American Constitutionalism; An Application of Critical Constitutional Theory, Ward, 1998
- Howard B. White, Peace Among the Willows: The Political Philosophy of Francis Bacon, The Hague Martinus Nijhoff, 1968
- Harvey Wheeler, Francis Bacon's "Verulamium": the Common Law Template of The Modern in English Science and Culture, 1999
- Frances Yates, (essay) Bacon's Magic, in Frances Yates, Ideas and Ideals in the North European Renaissance, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984
- Hepworth Dixon, William (1861). Personal history of Lord Bacon: From unpublished papers. pp. 35. http://books.google.com/?id=CGbaQ-oqtxQC.
- Hepworth Dixon, William (2003-02-01). Personal History of Lord Bacon from Unpublished Papers. pp. 200. ISBN 9780766127982. http://books.google.com/?id=BE4dalMQX-cC&lpg=PA200&dq=the%20people%20of%20the%20Great%20Republic%20would%20give%20the%20great%20and%20august%20name%20of%20Bacon%20to%20one%20of%20their%20splendid%20cities&pg=PA200#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- "The Mastery of Life". http://www.rosicrucian.org/about/mastery/mastery.pdf. Page 31
- Johannes Kelpius
- Crowther, J. G.. "Article about Francis Bacon". New Scientist January 19, 1961. http://books.google.com.br/books?id=ODBtWGjxXH8C&pg=PA146&dq=francis+bacon+napoleon+code&hl=pt-BR&sa=X&ei=DY0sT9KBG4Pv0gHrpqTRCg&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- Wheeler, Harvey. "Francis Bacon's 'Verulamium': the Common Law Template of The Modern in English Science and Culture"
- Kocher, Paul (1957). "Francis Bacon and the Science of Jurisprudence". Journal of the History of Ideas (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press) 8: 3–26. doi:10.2307/2707577.
- McClellan, James. "The Common Law Tradition - Liberty, Order, and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government (1989).
- Frances Yates, Theatre of the World, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969
- Bryan Bevan, The Real Francis Bacon, England: Centaur Press, 1960
- Daphne du Maurier, The Winding Stair, Biography of Bacon 1976.
- Frances Yates, The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age, pages 61–68, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979
- Frances Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972
- Bacon, Francis. Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human
- Andreae 1619.
- "Literary criticism of Johann Valentin Andreae". http://www.enotes.com/johann-valentin-andreae-criticism/andreae-johann-valentin.
- Saint Germain Foundation. The History of the "I AM" Activity and Saint Germain Foundation. Schaumburg, Illinois: Saint Germain Press 2003
- Luk, A.D.K.. Law of Life – Book II. Pueblo, Colorado: A.D.K. Luk Publications 1989, pages 254–267
- White Paper – Wesak World Congress 2002. Acropolis Sophia Books & Works 2003.
- Partridge, Christopher ed. New Religions: A Guide: New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities Oxford University Press, USA 2004.
- Schroeder, Werner Ascended Masters and Their Retreats Ascended Master Teaching Foundation 2004, pages 250–255
- Andreae, Johann Valentin (1619). "Christianopolis". Description of the Republic of Christianopolis. http://www.archive.org/details/christianopolis00andr.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bacon, Francis". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Cousin, John William (1910). " Bacon, Francis, Lord Verulam, And Viscount St. Alban". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. Wikisource
- Farrell, John (2006). "Chapter 6: The Science of Suspicion.". =Paranoia and Modernity: Cervantes to Rousseau. Cornell University Press. ISBN ????.
- Farrington, Benjamin (1964). The Philosophy of Francis Bacon. University of Chicago Press. Contains English translations of
- Temporis Partus Masculus
- Cogitata et Visa
- Redargutio Philosphiarum
- Heese, Mary (1968). "Francis Bacon's Philosophy of Science". In Vickers, Brian. Essential Articles for the Study of Francis Bacon. Hamden, CT: Archon Books. pp. 114–139.
- Fowler, Thomas (1885). "Bacon, Francis (1561-1626)". In Leslie Stephen. Dictionary of National Biography. 2. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 328&ndas;360.
- Peltonen, Markku (2007), "Bacon, Francis, Viscount St Alban (1561–1626)", on the website of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (subscription or UK public library membership required), http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/990
- Roselle, Daniel; Young, Anne P.. "Chapter 5: The 'Scientific Revolution' and the 'Intellectual Revolution'". Our Western Heritage. [full citation needed]
- Spedding, James; Ellis, Robert Leslie; Heath, Douglas Denon (1857–1874). The Works of Francis Bacon, Baron of Verulam, Viscount St Albans and Lord High Chancellor of England (15 volumes). London. http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/metabook?id=worksfbacon.
- Rossi, Paolo (1978). Francis Bacon: from Magic to Science. Taylor & Francis.
- Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1911). "article name needed". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
- Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1912). "article name needed". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
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Sir Thomas Egerton
|Lord High Chancellor|
|Attorney General of England and Wales|
|Parliament of England|
|Member of Parliament for Taunton|
|Member of Parliament for Liverpool|
|Member of Parliament for Middlesex|
Sir John Peyton
|Peerage of England|
Title granted by
James I of England
Title granted by
James I of England
|Viscount St Alban|