Wednesday, 3 October 2012

Nicola Tesla

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Nikola Tesla

Tesla, aged 37, 1893, photo by Napoleon Sarony
Born(1856-07-10)10 July 1856
Smiljan, Austrian Empire (modern-day Croatia)
Died7 January 1943(1943-01-07) (aged 86)
Manhattan, New York, USA
ResidenceSmiljan, Austrian Empire (modern-day Croatia)
Karlovac, Croatia
Budapest, Hungary
Manhattan, USA
CitizenshipAustrian Empire (10 July 1856 – 1867)
Austria-Hungary (1867 – 31 October 1918)
United States (30 July 1891 – 7 January 1943)
FieldsElectrical engineering
Mechanical engineering
InstitutionsEdison Machine Works
Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.
Alma materGraz University of Technology (dropped out)
Known for
InfluencesErnst Mach, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mark Twain, Swami Vivekananda, Voltaire
InfluencedGano Dunn
Notable awards
Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American[2][3][4] inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electrical supply system.[5]
Tesla started working in the telephony and electrical fields before immigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers, setting up laboratories/companies to develop a range of electrical devices. His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla as a consultant to help develop an alternating current system. Telsa is also known for his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs which included patented devices and theoretical work used in the invention of radio communication,[6] for his X-ray experiments, and for his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project.[7]
Tesla's achievements and his abilities as a showman demonstrating his seemingly miraculous inventions made him world-famous.[8] Although he made a great deal of money from his patents, he spent a lot on numerous experiments over the years. In the last few decades of his life, he ended up living in diminished circumstances as a recluse in Room 3327 of New Yorker Hotel, occasionally making unusual statements to the press.[9][10][11] Because of his pronouncements and the nature of his work over the years, Tesla gained a reputation in popular culture as the archetypal "mad scientist".[12][13] Tesla died penniless and in debt on 7 January 1943.[14][15][16][17]
Tesla's work fell into relative obscurity after his death, but since the 1990s, his reputation has experienced a comeback in popular culture.[18] In 2005, he was listed amongst the top 100 nominees in the TV show "The Greatest American", an open access popularity poll conducted by AOL and The Discovery Channel.[19] His work and reputed inventions are also at the center of many conspiracy theories and have also been used to support various pseudosciences, UFO theories and New Age occultism.
In 1960, in honor of Tesla, the General Conference on Weights and Measures for the International System of Units dedicated the term "tesla" to the SI unit measure for magnetic field strength.[20]



Early years (1856-1885)

Tesla's house (parish hall) in Smiljan, where he was born, and the church, where his father served.

Tesla's baptismal record, c. 28 June 1856.
Nikola Tesla was born on 10 July (O.S. 28 June) 1856 to Serbian parents in the village of Smiljan, Austrian Empire (modern-day Croatia). His father, Milutin Tesla, was a priest of the Serbian Orthodox Church.[21] Tesla's mother, Đuka Tesla (née Mandić), whose father was also a Serbian Orthodox priest,[22] had a talent for making home craft tools and for memorizing many Serbian epic poems, even though she had never learned how to read.[23] Tesla's progenitors were from Western Serbia, near Montenegro.[24]
Nikola was the fourth of five children, having an older brother, Dane, who was killed in a horse-riding accident when Nikola was five, and three sisters, Milka, Angelina and Marica.[25][26] Some accounts claim that Tesla had caused the accident by frightening the horse.[26]
In 1861, Nikola attended the Krajina "Lower" or "Primary" School in Smiljan, Austrian Empire, where he studied German, arithmetic, and religion.[27]
In 1862, the Tesla family moved to Gospić, Austrian Empire, where Nikola's father worked as a pastor. Nikola completed Krajina "Lower" or "Primary" School, followed by the "Lower Real Gymnasium" or "Normal School".[28]
In 1870, Tesla moved to Karlovac, Croatia to attend school at Higher Real Gymnasium, where his math teacher, Martin Sekulić, profoundly influenced him.[29][30] He was able to perform integral calculus in his head, leading his teachers to think that he was cheating.[31] He finished a four-year term in just three years, graduating in 1873.[32]
In 1873, after graduating from Higher Real Gymnasium, Tesla returned to his hometown, Smiljan, Croatia. Shortly after arriving, Tesla contracted cholera; he was bedridden for nine months and was near death multiple times. Nikola's father, in a moment of despair, agreed to send him to the best engineering school if he recovered from the illness[33][34] (his father originally wanted him to enter the priesthood).[35]
In 1874, Tesla evaded a draft[36] by escaping to Tomingaj, near Gračac. During this period of time, he explored the mountains in hunter's garb. Tesla claimed that this contact with nature made him stronger, both physically and mentally.[37] He read many books while in Tomingaj, later claiming that Mark Twain's works helped him to miraculously recover from the illness.[34]

Tesla wearing the Serbian national costume, c.1880. His childhood dream was to come to America to harness the power of Niagara Falls.[38]
In 1875, Tesla enrolled at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz, Austria on a Military Border scholarship. During his first year Tesla never missed a lecture, earned the highest grades possible, passed nine exams[34][39] (nearly twice as many required[40]), started a Serbian culture club,[39] and even received a letter of commendation from the dean of the technical faculty to his father, which stated, "Your son is a star of first rank."[41] Tesla claimed that he worked from 3 A.M. to 11 P.M., no Sundays or holidays excepted.[34] He was "mortified when [his] father made light of [those] hard won honors." After his father's death in 1879,[36] Tesla found a package of letters from his professors to his father, warning that unless he were removed from the school, Tesla would be killed through overwork.[34] During his second year, Tesla came into conflict with Professor Poeschl over the Gramme dynamo when Tesla suggested that commutators weren't necessary. At the end of his second year, Tesla lost his scholarship and became addicted to gambling.[34][39] During his third year, Tesla gambled away his allowance and his tuition money, later gambling back his initial losses and returning the balance to his family. Tesla claimed that he "conquered [his] passion then and there", but he was known to play billiards in the U.S.. When exam time came, Tesla was unprepared and asked for an extension to study, but was denied. He never graduated from the university and did not receive grades for the last semester.[36]
In December 1878, Tesla left Graz and severed all relations with his family. He didn't want his parents to know that he had dropped out.[36] His friends thought that he had drowned in the Mur River.[42] Tesla went to Marburg (now in Slovenia), where he was employed as a draftsman for 60 florins a month. He spent his spare time playing cards with the local man on the streets.[36] In March 1879, Milutin Tesla came to Maribor to plead to his son to return home, but Nikola refused.[43] Nikola suffered a nervous breakdown during this time.[42]
Nikola Tesla c. 1879 at age 23, and his passport from 1883
On 24 March 1879, Tesla was returned to Gospić under police guard for not having a residence permit. On 17 April 1879, Milutin Tesla died at the age of 60 after contracting an unspecified illness. During this year, Nikola taught a large class of students in his old school, Higher Real Gymnasium, in Gospić.[44]
In January 1880, two of Tesla's uncles put together enough money to help him flee[clarification needed] to Prague. Unfortunately, Tesla could not attend Charles-Ferdinand University because he arrived too tardy to enroll; never took Greek, which was required; and was illiterate in Czech, which was also required. Tesla did, however, attend lectures at the university as an auditor but did not receive grades for the courses.[45][46][47]
In 1881, Tesla moved to Budapest to work under Ferenc Puskas at a telegraph company, the Budapest Telephone Exchange. Upon arrival, Tesla realized that the company, then under construction, was not functional, so he worked as a draftsman in the Central Telegraph Office, instead. Within a few months, the Budapest Telephone Exchange became functional and Tesla was allocated the chief electrician position.[48] During his employment, Tesla made many improvements to the Central Station equipment and claimed to have perfected a telephone repeater or amplifier, which was never patented or publicly described.[34]

Working for Edison

In 1882, Tesla began working the Continental Edison Company in France, designing and making improvements to electrical equipment.[49]
In June 1884, Tesla relocated to New York City.[50] During his trip across the Atlantic, his ticket, money and some of his luggage were stolen and he was nearly thrown overboard after a mutiny broke out on the ship.[51] He arrived with only four cents in his pocket, a letter of recommendation, a few poems, and remnants of his belongings.
In the letter of recommendation from Charles Batchelor, a former employer, to Thomas Edison, it is claimed that Batchelor wrote, "I know two great men and you are one of them; the other is this young man." (the exact contents of the letter is disputed in McNichol's book). Edison hired Tesla to work for his Edison Machine Works. Tesla's work for Edison began with simple electrical engineering and quickly progressed to solving some of the company's most difficult problems. Tesla was even offered the task of completely redesigning the Edison Company's direct current generators.[52]
In 1885, Tesla claimed that he could redesign Edison's inefficient motor and generators, making an improvement in both service and economy. According to Tesla, Edison remarked, "There's fifty thousand dollars in it for you—if you can do it"[53]—this has been noted as an odd statement from an Edison whose company was stingy with pay and who did not have that sort of cash on hand.[54] After months of work, Tesla fulfilled the task and inquired about payment. Edison, claiming that he was only joking, replied, "Tesla, you don't understand our American humor".[55][56] Instead, Edison offered a US$10 a week raise over Tesla's US$18 per week salary; Tesla refused the offer and immediately resigned.[53]

Middle years (1886-1899)

In 1886, Tesla formed his own company, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing.[57] The company installed electrical arc light based illumination systems designed by Tesla and also had designs for dynamo electric machine commutators, the first patents issued to Tesla in the US.[58]

Drawing from U.S. Patent 381,968, illustrating principle of Tesla's alternating current motor
In 1885, Tesla proposed that the company should go on to develop his ideas for alternating current transmission systems and motors. The investors disagreed and eventually fired him, leaving him penniless; Tesla was forced to work as a ditch digger for US$2 per day. Tesla considered the winter of 1886/1887 as a time of "terrible headaches and bitter tears". During this time, he questioned the value of his education.[58][59]
In April 1887, Tesla started a company, the Tesla Electric Company, with the backing of New York attorney Charles F. Peck and Alfred S. Brown, the director of Western Union. They set up a laboratory for Tesla at 89 Liberty St. in Manhattan so he could work on his alternating current motor and other devices for power distribution, with an agreement that they share fifty-fifty with Tesla any profits generated from patents.[60] It was here in 1887 that Tesla constructed a brushless alternating current induction motor based on a rotating magnetic field principle which he patented in 1888.[61] At that time many inventors were trying to develop workable AC motors[62] because AC's advantages in long distance high voltage transmission were counterbalanced by the inability to operate motors on AC. Tesla claimed that he conceived his induction motor in 1882 although the claim had no independent verification.[63] The paternity of the invention remains controversial, since rotating magnetic fields and a prototype induction motor were demonstrated in Europe in 1885 by Galileo Ferraris.[64][65][66][67] Ferraris published his findings in 1888.[68]
In 1888, Tesla developed the principles of the Tesla coil.[citation needed]
In 1888, the editor of Electrical World magazine, Thomas Commerford Martin (a friend and publicist), arranged for Tesla to demonstrate his alternating current system, including his induction motor, at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE).[69] Engineers working for the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company reported to George Westinghouse that Tesla had a viable AC motor and power system—something that Westinghouse had been trying to secure. In July 1888 Brown and Peck negotiated a licensing deal with George Westinghouse for Tesla's polyphase induction motor and transformer designs for $60,000 in cash and stock and a royalty of $2.50 per AC horsepower produced by each motor. Westinghouse also hired Tesla for one year for the large fee of $2,000 a month to be a consultant at the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh labs.[70]
During that year, Tesla worked in Pittsburgh, helping to create an alternating current system to power the city's streetcars. He found the time there frustrating because of conflicts between him and the other Westinghouse engineers over how to best implement AC power. Between them they settled on a 60-cycle AC current system Tesla proposed (to match the working frequency of Tesla's motor), although they soon found that, since Tesla's induction motor could only run at a constant speed, it would not work for street cars. They ended up using a DC traction motor instead.[71]

Wireless transmission of power and energy demonstration during his 1891 lecture on high frequency and potential.
Tesla demonstrated wireless energy transmission (Tesla effect) as early as 1891.[72][73]

American citizenship

On 30 July 1891, at the age of 35, Tesla became a naturalized citizen of the United States. He told many of his companions that he valued the citizenship more than any scientific honors that he had acquired.[74]
In the same year, Tesla established his South Fifth Avenue laboratory in New York. Later, he established his Houston Street laboratory in New York at 46 E. Houston Street. He lit electric lamps wirelessly at both of the New York locations, providing evidence for the potential of wireless power transmission.[75]
In 1892, Nikola spent a few months in Europe visiting other scientists. He later went to visit his hometown,[76] arriving from Paris hours before his mother's death.[77] He stayed at her side until he was exhausted. Nikola was awakened from a dream, in which an angel bearing resemblance to his mother appeared. He wrote: "I was wakened up by an indescribably sweet song of many voices." He believed that the dream was a sign that his mother had died; he later confirmed this.[76] Her last words to him were: "You've arrived, Nidžo, my pride."[77] At first, Tesla believed that the dream was a message from the supernatural; however, after a few months of research, he concluded that his dream was caused by a painting of angels that he had seen before going to bed and that the singing voices had been from a nearby church.[76]
After the death of his mother, Nikola became ill and spent two to three weeks recovering in Gospić and Tomingaj.[77]
From 1892 to 1894, Tesla served as the vice president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the forerunner (along with the Institute of Radio Engineers) of the modern-day IEEE.[78]
Tesla investigated harvesting energy in space. He believed that it was merely a question of time until men would succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature, stating: "Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe."[79]

Nikola Tesla's AC dynamo-electric machine (Electric generator) used to generate AC which is used to transport electricity across great distances. It is contained in U.S. Patent 390,721.
In 1893, Westinghouse won the bid to electrify the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago with alternating current. This World's Fair devoted a building to electrical exhibits. It was a key event in the history of AC power as Westinghouse and Tesla demonstrated the safety and reliability of alternating current to the American public.[80] At the Columbian Exposition, Tesla demonstrated a series of electrical effects in a lecture he had performed throughout America and Europe.[81] This included using high-voltage, high-frequency alternating current to light a wireless gas-discharge lamp.[82] An observer noted:
Within the room was suspended two hard-rubber plates covered with tin foil. These were about fifteen feet apart, and served as terminals of the wires leading from the transformers. When the current was turned on, the lamps or tubes, which had no wires connected to them, but lay on a table between the suspended plates, or which might be held in the hand in almost any part of the room, were made luminous. These were the same experiments and the same apparatus shown by Tesla in London about two years previous, "where they produced so much wonder and astonishment".[83]
Tesla also explained the principles of a rotating magnetic field and induction motor by demonstrating how to make a copper egg stand on end. The device he constructed is known as the "Egg of Columbus".[84]
As a result of the "War of Currents", Edison and Westinghouse went nearly bankrupt. Edison had lost control of his company to J. P. Morgan and Morgan was refusing to loan more money to Westinghouse due to the financial strain of the Tesla AC patents[85][86] (at that point Westinghouse had paid out an estimated $200,000 in licenses and royalties to Tesla, Brown, and Peck[87]). In 1897 Westinghouse explained his financial difficulties to Tesla in stark terms, saying that if things continue the way they were he would no longer be in control of Westinghouse Electric and Tesla would have to "deal with the bankers" to try to collect future royalties. Westinghouse convinced Tesla to released his company from the licensing agreement over Tesla's AC patents in exchange for Westinghouse Electric purchasing the patents for a lump sum payment of $216,000;[88] this provided Westinghouse a break from what, due to alternating current's rapid gain in popularity, had turned out to be an overly generous $2.50 per AC horsepower royalty.[70]

X-ray experimentation

X-ray of Tesla's hand—one of the earliest x-ray photographs.
Starting in 1894, Tesla began investigating what he referred to as radiant energy of "invisible" kinds that he had noticed damaged film in his lab in previous experiments[89][90] (later identified as "Roentgen rays" or "X-Rays"). His early experiments were with Crookes tubes, a cold cathode electrical discharge tube. Tesla may have been the first person in North America to accidentally capture an X-ray image[91] when he tried to photograph Mark Twain illuminated by an earlier type of gas discharge tube Geissler tube in 1895. The only thing captured in the image was the metal locking screw on the camera lens. Soon after, much of Tesla's early research was lost in the 5th Avenue laboratory fire of March 1895.[92]
In March 1896, after hearing of Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-ray and X-ray imaging (radiography),[93] Tesla proceeded to do his own experiments in X-ray imaging, developing a high energy single terminal vacuum tube of his own design that had no target electrode and that worked from the output of the Tesla Coil (the modern term for the phenomenon produced by this device is bremsstrahlung (or braking radiation). In his research, Tesla devised several experimental setups to produce X-rays. Tesla held that, with his circuits, the "instrument will [... enable one to] generate Roentgen rays of much greater power than obtainable with ordinary apparatus".[94]
Tesla noted the hazards of working with his circuit and single-node X-ray-producing devices. In his many notes on the early investigation of this phenomenon, he attributed the skin damage to various causes. He believed early on that damage to the skin was not caused by the Roentgen rays, but by the ozone generated in contact with the skin, and to a lesser extent, by nitrous acid. Tesla incorrectly believed that X-rays were longitudinal waves, such as those produced in waves in plasma. These plasma waves can occur in force-free magnetic fields.[95][96]
On July 11, 1934, the New York Herald Tribune published an article on Tesla, in which he recalled an event that would occasionally take place while experimenting with his single-electrode vacuum tubes; a minute particle would break off the cathode, pass out of the tube, and physically strike him. “Tesla said he could feel a sharp stinging pain where it entered his body, and again at the place where it passed out.” In comparing these particles with the bits of metal projected by his “electric gun”, Tesla said, “The particles in the beam of force ... will travel much faster than such particles . .. and they will travel in concentrations.”[97]


Tesla's theories on the possibility of the transmission by radio waves go back as far lectures and demonstrations in 1893 in St. Louis, Missouri, the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the National Electric Light Association.[98] Tesla's demonstrations and principles were written about widely through various media outlets.[79] Many devices such as the Tesla Coil were used in the further developement of radio.[6]
Tesla's radio wave experiments in 1896 were conducted in Gerlach Hotel (later renamed The Radio Wave building), where he resided.[99]
In 1898, Tesla demonstrated a radio-controlled boat (U.S. Patent 613,809Method of an Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vehicle or Vehicles).
In 1898, Tesla demonstrated a radio-controlled boat—which he dubbed "teleautomaton"—to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden.[1] The crowd who witnessed the demonstrated claimed the boat to be everything from magic and telepathy to being piloted by a trained monkey hidden inside.[100] Tesla tried to sell his idea to the U.S. military as a type of radio-controlled torpedo, but they showed little interest.[101] Remote radio control remained a novelty until World War I and afterward, when a number of countries used it in military programs.[citation needed]
In 1900, Tesla was granted patents for "system of transmitting electrical energy" and "an electrical transmitter". When Guglielmo Marconi made his famous first ever transatlantic radio transmission in 1901, Tesla quipped that it was done with 17 Tesla patents. This was the beginning of years of patent battles over radio with Tesla's patents being upheld in 1903, followed by a reverse decision in favor of Marconi in 1904. In 1943, a Supreme Court of the United States decision restored the prior patents of Tesla, Oliver Lodge, and John Stone.[102] The court declared that their decision had no bearing on Marconi's claim as the first to achieve radio transmission, just that since Marconi's claim to certain patents were questionable, he could not claim infringement on those same patents[103] (there are claims the high court was trying to nullify a World War I claim against the U.S. government by the Marconi Company via simply restoring Tesla's prior patent).[102]

Other inventions

In 1898, Tesla devised an "electric igniter" or spark plug for internal combustion gasoline engines. He was awarded U.S. Patent 609,250, "Electrical Igniter for Gas Engines", for this mechanical ignition system.
Tesla invented an electro-mechanical oscillator—Tesla's oscillator—a steam-powered mechanical oscillator. At his Houston Street lab, while experimenting with mechanical oscillators, Tesla allegedly generated a resonance of several buildings, causing complaints to the police. As the speed grew, it is said that the machine oscillated at the resonance frequency of his own building and, belatedly realizing the danger, he was forced to apply a sledge hammer to terminate the experiment, just as the police arrived.[104] In February 1912, an article—“Nikola Tesla, Dreamer” by Allan L. Benson—was published in World Today, in which an artist's illustration appears showing the entire earth cracking in half with the caption, “Tesla claims that in a few weeks he could set the earth's crust into such a state of vibration that it would rise and fall hundreds of feet and practically destroy civilization. A continuation of this process would, he says, eventually split the earth in two.”[97]
On 13 May 1899, while on his way to Colorado Springs, Colorado, Tesla stopped by a meeting of the Commercial Club in Chicago, Illinois for his "Teleautomatics" address/demonstration.[105]

Colorado Springs

Multiple exposure publicity picture of Tesla sitting in his Colorado Springs laboratory with his "Magnifying transmitter" generating millions of volts and producing 7 meter (23 ft) long arcs.

Tesla holding a phosphor-coated gas-discharge lamp, illuminated by wireless electricity. Colorado Springs, 1899.

An experiment in Colorado Springs. This bank of lights is receiving power by means of electrodynamic induction from a nearby transmitter

A Colorado Springs experiment: here a grounded tuned coil in resonance with a distant transmitter illuminates a light near the bottom of the picture.
On 17 May 1899, Tesla moved to Colorado Springs, where he would have room for his high-voltage, high-frequency experiments;[105] his lab was located near Foote Ave. and Kiowa St.[106] He chose this location because the polyphase alternating current power distribution system had been introduced there and he had associates who were willing to give him all the power he needed without charging for it.[107] Upon his arrival, he told reporters that he was conducting wireless telegraphy experiments, transmitting signals from Pikes Peak to Paris.[citation needed]
On June 15, 1899, Tesla performed his first experiments at his Colorado Springs lab; he recorded his initial spark length at five inches long, but very thick and noisy.[105]
Tesla investigated atmospheric electricity, observing lightning signals via his receivers. Reproductions of Tesla's receivers and coherer circuits show an unpredicted level of complexity: distributed high-Q helical resonators, radio frequency feedback, crude heterodyne effects, and regeneration techniques.[108] Tesla stated that he observed stationary waves during this time.[109]
Tesla's diary contains explanations of his experiments concerning the ionosphere and the ground's telluric currents via transverse waves and longitudinal waves.[110] He researched ways to transmit energy wirelessly over long distances (via transverse waves, to a lesser extent, and, more readily, longitudinal waves). He transmitted extremely low frequencies through the ground as well as between the earth's surface and the Kennelly–Heaviside layer. Tesla received U.S. Patent 645,576 for wireless transceivers that developed standing waves by this method. In his experiments, he made mathematical calculations and computations based on his experiments and discovered that the resonant frequency of the earth was approximately 8 hertz (Hz)[111] (later confirmed by researchers in the 1950s—named the Schumann resonance).[112] Tesla sent electrostatic forces through natural media across a conductor situated in the changing magnetic flux and transferred electrical energy to a wireless receiver.[citation needed]
At his lab, Tesla proved that the earth was a conductor. He produced artificial lightning (with discharges consisting of millions of volts and up to 135 feet long).[113] Thunder from the released energy was heard 15 miles away in Cripple Creek, Colorado. People walking along the street observed sparks jumping between their feet and the ground. Electricity sprang from a tap whenever someone turned them on. Lightbulbs within 100 feet of the lab glowed even when turned off. Horses in a livery stable bolted from their stalls after receiving shocks through their metal shoes. Butterflies were electrified, swirling in circles with blue halos of St. Elmo's fire around their wings.[114]
While experimenting, Tesla accidentally short-circuited the generator, causing a power outage. In August 1917, Tesla explained what had happened in The Electrical Experimenter: "As an example of what has been done with several hundred kilowatts of high frequency energy liberated, it was found that the dynamos in a power house six miles away were repeatedly burned out, due to the powerful high frequency currents set up in them, and which caused heavy sparks to jump thru the windings and destroy the insulation!"[115]
At his lab, Tesla observed unusual signals (which he interpreted as 1—2—3—4), which he later believed were extraterrestrial radio wave communications coming from Mars. He noticed repetitive signals from his receiver which were substantially different from the signals that he had noted from noise of storms and the earth.[116] Specifically, he later recalled that the signals appeared in groups of one, two, three, and four clicks together.[citation needed] Tesla was highly criticized upon revealing his finding.[105] Tesla had mentioned that he thought his inventions could be used to talk with other planets.[citation needed] It is debatable what type of signals Tesla received or whether he picked up anything at all. Research has suggested that Tesla may have had a misunderstanding of the new technology he was working with,[citation needed] or that the signals Tesla observed may have been from a non-terrestrial natural radio source such as the Jovian plasma torus signals.[117] Other sources hypothesize that he may have intercepted Marconi's European experiments—in December 1901, Marconi successfully transmitted the letter S (dot/dot/dot, the same three impulses that Tesla claimed to have received from outer space while at Colorado in 1899) from Poldhu, England to Signal Hill, Newfoundland (now part of Canada)—or signals from another experimenter in wireless transmission.[118]
In 1899, John Jacob Astor IV invested $100,000 for Tesla to further develop and produce a new lighting system. Instead, Tesla used the money to fund his Colorado Springs experiments.[119]
On 7 January 1900, Tesla left Colorado Springs.[citation needed] His lab was torn down ca. 1905 and its contents were sold to satisfy a debt.[citation needed]
The Colorado experiments had prepared Tesla for the establishment of the trans-Atlantic wireless telecommunications facility known as Wardenclyffe near Shoreham, Long Island.[120]

Wardenclyffe years (1900–1917)

Tesla Ready for Business - August 7, 1901 New-York tribune article

The Tesla coil wireless transmitter
U.S. Patent 1,119,732

Tesla's Wardenclyffe plant on Long Island in 1904. From this facility, Tesla hoped to demonstrate wireless transmission of electrical energy across the Atlantic.
In 1900, with US$150,000 (more than $3 million today; 51% from J. Pierpont Morgan), Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility.[121]
Tesla later approached Morgan to ask for more funds to build a more powerful transmitter. When asked where all the money had gone, Tesla responded by saying that he was effected by the Panic of 1901, which he (Morgan) had caused. Morgan was shocked by the reminder of his part in the stock market crash and by Tesla's breach of contract by asking for more funds. Tesla wrote another plea to Morgan, but it was also fruitless. Morgan still owed Tesla money on the original agreement, and Tesla had been facing foreclosure even before construction of the tower began.[118]
In December 1901, Marconi successfully transmitted the letter S from England to Newfoundland, terminating Tesla's relationship with Morgan. Over the next 5 years, Tesla wrote over 50 letters to Morgan, pleading for and demanding additional funding to complete the construction of Wardenclyffe. Tesla continued his project for another nine months. The tower was raised to its full 187 feet.[118] In July 1903, Tesla wrote to Morgan that in addition to wireless communication, Wardenclyffe would be capable of wireless transmission of electric power.[122] On 14 October 1904, Morgan finally replied through his secretary, stating, "It will be impossible for [me/ Morgan] to do anything in the matter", after Tesla had written to Morgan when the financier was meeting with the Archbishop of Canterbury in an attempt to appeal to his Christian spirit.[118]
In June 1902, Tesla's lab operations were moved to Wardenclyffe from Houston Street.[122]
On his 50th birthday in 1906, Tesla demonstrated his 200 hp (150 kW) 16,000 rpm bladeless turbine. During 1910–1911 at the Waterside Power Station in New York, several of his bladeless turbine engines were tested at 100–5,000 hp.[123]
After Wardenclyffe, Tesla built the Telefunken Wireless Station in Sayville, Long Island. Some of what he wanted to achieve at Wardenclyffe was accomplished with the Telefunken Wireless.[124] In 1917 the tower was seized and blown up with dynamite for scrap by the Marines, owing to fears that German spies were using it and that it could be used as a landmark for German submarines.[124][125][126]
Before World War I (1914–1918), Tesla looked overseas for investors to fund his research. When the war started, Tesla lost the funding he was receiving from his patents in European countries.
During this time, Tesla was staying at Waldorf-Astoria Hotel,[121] renting in an arrangement for deferred payments.[citation needed] Eventually, the Wardenclyffe deed was turned over to George Boldt, proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria, to pay a US$20,000 debt (about $400,000 today).[122] In 1917, around the time that the Wardenclyffe Tower was demolished by Boldt to make the land a more viable real estate asset, Tesla received AIEE's highest honor, the Edison Medal.[citation needed]
In August 1917, Tesla first established the principles of frequency and power level for the first primitive radar units.[124]

Nobel Prize rumors

On November 6, 1915 a Reuters news agency report had the Nobel Prize in Physics that year being awarded to Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla, but on November 15 Reuters released a story stating the prize would be awarded to Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays".[127][128] There are claims by Tesla biographers that neither Edison nor Tesla were given the award because of their animosity toward each other; that each sought to minimize the other's achievements and right to win the award; that both refused ever to accept the award if the other received it first; and that both rejected any possibility of sharing it.[23][128][129] The Nobel Foundation declined to comment on any speculation other than to say that if Edison and Tesla were going to get a prize, it would not be withdrawn based on a recipient's plan to refuse it; it would be awarded and the recipient would have to refuse it after the fact.[128]
In the years after these rumors, neither Tesla nor Edison won the prize (although Edison did receive one of 38 possible bids in 1915, and Tesla did receive one bid out of 38 in 1937).[130]

Later years (1918-1943)

 Maček's telegram to Tesla Tesla's telegram to Maček
Tesla's famous telegram exchange with Vladko Maček is preserved in the Technical Museum in Zagreb, Croatia

Tesla (9th from left), along with some of the greatest scientists at that time, including Albert Einstein (8th from left), taking an inspection tour of the New Brunswick Marconi Station. Circa 1921.[131]
In 1928, Tesla received his last patent, U.S. Patent 1,655,114, for a biplane capable of taking off vertically (VTOL aircraft) and then be "gradually tilted through manipulation of the elevator devices" in flight until it was flying like a conventional plane.[132] Tesla stated it would weigh 800 pounds and would sell at $1,000 for both military and consumer uses.[citation needed] Although the aircraft was probably impractical, it may be the earliest known design for what became the tiltrotor/tilt-wing concept as well as the earliest proposal for the use of turbine engines in rotor aircraft.[133]
In 1934, Tesla moved to the Hotel New Yorker after he had reached a settlement with the Westinghouse Corporation, in which Tesla was granted a consulting rate of US$125 per month along paid monthly renting expenses. Tesla never satisfied the debt owed to Hotel Governor Clinton.[134]
In 1934, Tesla wrote to Consul Janković of his homeland.[citation needed] The letter contained a message of gratitude to Mihajlo Pupin who had initiated a donation scheme by which American companies could support Tesla.[citation needed] Tesla refused the assistance, choosing instead to live on a modest pension received from Yugoslavia, and to continue his research.[citation needed]
In 1935, in an annual birthday celebration interview, Tesla announced a method of transmitting mechanical energy with minimal loss over any terrestrial distance, a related new means of communication, and a method of accurately determining the location of underground mineral deposits.[97]
In 1936, Tesla replied to a birthday telegram from Vladko Maček, saying that he was "equally proud" of his "Serbian origin and Croatian homeland",[135] a phrase often paraphrased in conciliatory context at modern-day joint Croatian-Serbian Tesla celebrations.[136] In addition, in the same telegram, Tesla wrote "Long live all Yugoslavs."[137] When others tried to co-opt him into ethnic and other conflicts in Yugoslavia, Tesla replied: "If your hate could be turned into electricity, it would light up the whole world."[135]
In the fall of 1937, after midnight one night, Tesla left the Hotel New Yorker to make his regular commute to the cathedral and the library to feed the pigeons. While crossing a street a couple of blocks from the hotel, Tesla was unable to dodge a moving taxicab and was thrown heavily to the ground. Tesla's back was severely wrenched and three of his ribs were broken in the accident (the full extent of his injuries will never be known; Tesla refused to consult a doctor—an almost lifelong custom). Tesla didn't raise any question as to who was at fault and refused medical aid, only asking be taken to his hotel via cab. Tesla was bedridden for some months and was unable to continue feeding pigeons from his window; soon, they failed to come. In the spring of 1938, Tesla was able to get up. He at once resumed the pigeons—feeding walks on a much more limited scale, but frequently had a messenger act for him.[138]

Directed-energy weapon

Later in life, Tesla made claims concerning a "teleforce" weapon after studying the Van de Graaff generator.[139][140] The press called it a "peace ray" or death ray.[141][142] Tesla described the weapon as being able to be used against ground based infantry or for antiaircraft purposes.
Tesla gives the following description concerning the particle gun's operation:
[The nozzle would] send concentrated beams of particles through the free air, of such tremendous energy that they will bring down a fleet of 10,000 enemy airplanes at a distance of 200 miles from a defending nation's border and will cause armies to drop dead in their tracks.[143][144]
In total, the components and methods included:
  • An apparatus for producing manifestations of energy in free air instead of in a high vacuum as in the past.
  • A mechanism for generating tremendous electrical force.
  • A means of intensifying and amplifying the force developed by the second mechanism.
  • A new method for producing a tremendous electrical repelling force. This would be the projector, or gun, of the invention.[145][146]
Tesla claimed to have worked on plans for a directed-energy weapon from the early 1900s until his death.[147][148]
In 1937, at a luncheon in his honor concerning the death ray, Tesla stated, "But it is not an experiment... I have built, demonstrated and used it. Only a little time will pass before I can give it to the world." His records indicate that the device is based on a narrow stream of small tungsten pellets that are accelerated via high voltage (by means akin to his magnifying transformer).[140]
During the same year, Tesla wrote a treatise, "The Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-dispersive Energy through the Natural Media", concerning charged particle beam weapons.[149] Tesla published the document in an attempt to expound on the technical description of a "superweapon that would put an end to all war." This treatise is currently in the Nikola Tesla Museum archive in Belgrade. It describes an open-ended vacuum tube with a gas jet seal that allows particles to exit, a method of charging particles to millions of volts, and a method of creating and directing non-dispersive particle streams (through electrostatic repulsion).[149] Tesla tried to interest the US War Department,[150] England, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia in the device.[151]
During the period in which the negotiations were being carried on, Tesla claimed that efforts had been made to steal the invention. His room had been entered and his papers had been scrutinized, but the thieves, or spies, left empty-handed. He said that there was no danger that his invention could be stolen for he had at no time committed any part of it to paper. The blueprint for the teleforce weapon was all in his mind.[152]


Gilded urn with Tesla's ashes, in his favorite geometrical object of sphere, Nikola Tesla Museum, Belgrade.
On 7 January, Tesla, 86, died alone in Room 3327 of the New Yorker Hotel. His corpse was later found by maid Alice Monaghan after she had entered Tesla's room, ignoring the "do not disturb" sign that Tesla had had placed on his door two days prior to his death. Assistant medical examiner, H. W. Wembly, was called to the scene; after examining of the body, he ruled that the cause of death had been coronary thrombosis and that there had been no suspicious circumstances.[153]
Despite having sold his AC electricity patents, Tesla died penniless and in debt.[14][15][16][17]
Tesla's remains were taken to the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Home at Madison Ave. and 81st St. A sculptor was commissioned by Hugo Gernsback, a long-time friend and supporter of Tesla, to create a death mask (now displayed in the Nikola Tesla Museum).[153]
On 9 January, after learning of Tesla's death, the FBI ordered the Alien Property Custodian to seize all of Tesla's belongings,[153] even though Tesla was an American citizen.[154] Tesla's entire estate from the Hotel New Yorker and other New York City hotels, was transported to the Manhattan Storage and Warehouse Company under OAP seal.[153]
Dr. John G. Trump, a professor at M.I.T. and well-known electrical engineer serving as a technical aide to the National Defense Research Committee, was called in to analyze the Tesla items in OAP custody[153] to look for any material that could be sensitive in nature in relationship to the ongoing war at the time.[citation needed] After a three-day investigation, Trump concluded in his report that there was nothing that would constitute a hazard in unfriendly hands, stating:
His [Tesla's] thoughts and efforts during at least the past 15 years were primarily of a speculative, philosophical, and somewhat promotional character often concerned with the production and wireless transmission of power; but did not include new, sound, workable principles or methods for realizing such results.[155]
In a box purported to contain a part of Tesla's "death ray", Trump found a 45 year-old piece of basic electrical test equipment.[156]
A few days after Tesla's death, the information center of the Yugoslav royal government-in-exile released a statement, giving a short review of Tesla's achievements and the schedule for his memorial service and funeral.[citation needed]
On 10 January 1943, New York City mayor, Fiorello La Guardia read a eulogy written by Croatian author, Louis Adamić, live over the WNYC radio. Violin pieces, "Ave Maria" and "Tamo Daleko", were played in the background.[153]
On 12 January, Tesla was given a state funeral at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, the largest Gothic cathedral in the world, in New York City. 2,000 people attended. The funeral service was opened by Episcopal Bishop William T. Manning and concluded by the venerable Reverend Dushan J. Shukletovich, rector of the Serbian Orthodox Church of St. Sava. After the funeral, Tesla's corpse was taken to the Ferncliff Cemetery in Ardsley, New York, where it was later cremated.[153]
On 13 January, a second service was conducted in Serbian by prominent priests of the Serbian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Sava in New York City.[153]
In 1952, after constant pressure from Tesla's nephew, Sava Kosanović, arrangements were finally made; Tesla's entire estate (original papers, thousands of letters, photographs and most of Tesla's inventions including the remote-controlled boat, wireless fluorescent lamps, motors, turbines, etc.) was shipped to Belgrade. The estate was shipped in 80 trunks marked N.T.[157]
In 1957, Ms. Charlotte Muzar, secretary and assistant to Tesla's nephew, the late Sava Kosanović, delivered Tesla's ashes from the United States to Belgrade.[158] Tesla's ashes are currently kept in the third room of the Nikola Tesla Museum, in the gold-plated sphere on a marble pedestal.[159]


Newspaper representation of Tesla's theoretical invention, the thought camera, which would photograph thoughts. Circa 1933.
Tesla obtained around 300 patents worldwide for his inventions.[160] Some of Tesla's patents are not accounted for, and various sources have discovered some that have laid hidden in patent archives. There are a minimum of 278 patents[160] issued to Tesla in 26 countries that have been accounted for. Many of Tesla's patents were in the United States, Britain, and Canada, but many other patents were approved in countries around the globe.[161] Many inventions developed by Tesla were not put into patent protection.

Personal life

Nikola Tesla's father Milutin, Serbian Orthodox priest in the village of Smiljan.
Tesla worked every day from 9 A.M. until 6 P.M. or later, with dinner from exactly 8 to 10 pm, at Delmonico's restaurant and later the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. Tesla would telephone his dinner order to the headwaiter, who also could be the only one to serve him. "The meal was required to be ready at eight o'clock... He dined alone, except on the rare occasions when he would give a dinner to a group to meet his social obligations. Tesla would then resume his work, often until 3 am."[162]
For exercise, Tesla walked 8 to 10 miles per day. He squished his toes one hundred times for each foot every night, claiming that it stimulated his brain cells.[163]
In an interview with Arthur Brisbane, a newspaper editor for The World, Tesla said that he did not believe in telepathy, stating, "Suppose I made up my mind to murder you," he said, "In a second you would know it. Now, isn't that wonderful? By what process does the mind get at all this?" In the same interview, Tesla said that he believed that all fundamental laws could be reduced to one.[164]
Although Tesla opposed war and believed that war could not be avoided until its cause was removed, he concluded that some wars might be justifiable.[165][not in citation given]
Near the end of his life, Tesla showed signs of encroaching senility, walking to the park every day to feed the pigeons and even bringing injured ones into his hotel room to nurse back to health.[166][167] He claimed that he had been visited by a specific injured white pigeon daily. Tesla spent over US$2,000, including building a device that comfortably supported her so her bones could heal, to fix her broken wing and leg.[36] Tesla stated, "I have been feeding pigeons, thousands of them for years. But there was one, a beautiful bird, pure white with light grey tips on its wings; that one was different. It was a female. I had only to wish and call her and she would come flying to me. I loved that pigeon as a man loves a woman, and she loved me. As long as I had her, there was a purpose to my life.”[168][169]
Tesla became a vegetarian in his later years, living on only milk, bread, honey, and vegetable juices.[140][170]
In his final years, Tesla suffered from extreme sensitivity to light, sound and other influences.[171]


Tesla's portrait—Blue Portrait—from 1916, painted by then-Hungarian princess, Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy.

Tesla, aged 40. c. 1896
Tesla was 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m) tall and weighed 142 pounds (64 kg), with almost no weight variance from 1888 to about 1926.[172] He was an elegant, stylish figure in New York City, meticulous in his grooming, clothing, and regimented in his daily activities. "This was not because of personal vanity. Neatness and fastidiousness in clothes were entirely in harmony with every other phase of his personality. He did not maintain a large wardrobe and he wore no jewelry of any kind... He observed, however, that in the matter of clothes the world takes a man at his own valuation, as expressed in his appearance, and frequently eases his way to his objective through small courtesies not extended to less prepossessing individuals."[173]
Although many of Tesla's progenitors were dark-eyed, his eyes were a gray-blue. He claimed that his eyes were originally darker, but as a result of the exorbitant use of his brain, their hue changed. However, his mother and some of his cousins possessed gray eyes, so it can be inferred that the gray of his eyes was inherited.[174]
Arthur Brisbane, a newspaper editor for The World, described Tesla's appearance:
Nikola Tesla is almost the tallest, almost the thinnest and certainly the most serious man who goes to Delmonico's regularly.... He has eyes set very far back in his head. They are rather light. I asked him how he could have such light eyes and be a Slav. He told me that his eyes were once much darker, but that using his mind a great deal had made them many shades lighter. I have often heard it said that using the brain makes the eyes lighter in color. Tesla's confirmation of the theory through his personal experience is important.He is very thin, is more than six feet tall and weighs less than a hundred and forty pounds. He has very big hands. Many able men do—Lincoln is one instance. His thumbs are remarkably big, even for such big hands. They are extraordinarily big. This is a good sign. The thumb is the intellectual part of the hand. The apes have very small thumbs. Study them and you will notice this.
Nikola Tesla has a head that spreads out at the top like a fan. His head is shaped like a wedge. His chin is as pointed as an ice-pick. His mouth is too small. His chin, though not weak, is not strong enough. His face cannot be studied and judged like the faces of other men, for he is not a worker in practical fields. He lives his life up in the top of his head, where ideas are born, and up there he has plenty of room. His hair is jet black and curly. He stoops—most men do when they have no peacock blood in them. He lives inside of himself. He takes a profound interest in his own work. He has that supply of self-love and self-confidence which usually goes with success. And he differs from most of the men who are written and talked about in the fact that he has something to tell.[164]

Eidetic Memory

Tesla read many works, memorizing complete books, and supposedly possessing a photographic memory.[175] He was a polyglot, speaking eight languages: Serbo-Croatian, Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, and Latin.[176] Tesla related in his autobiography that he experienced detailed moments of inspiration. During his early life, Tesla was stricken with illness time and time again. He suffered a peculiar affliction in which blinding flashes of light would appear before his eyes, often accompanied by visions. Often, the visions were linked to a word or idea he might have come across; at other times they would provide the solution to a particular problem he had encountered. Just by hearing the name of an item, he would be able to envision it in realistic detail. Modern-day synesthetes report similar symptoms. Tesla would visualize an invention in his mind with extreme precision, including all dimensions, before moving to the construction stage; a technique sometimes known as picture thinking. He typically did not make drawings by hand but worked from memory. Beginning in his childhood, Tesla had frequent flashbacks to events that had happened previously in his life.[175]

Sleep Habits

Tesla claimed to never sleep more than two hours.[177] However, Tesla did admit to "dozing" from time to time "to recharge his batteries."[163]
During his second year of study at Graz, Tesla developed a passion for (and became very proficient at) billiards, chess and card-playing, sometimes spending more than 48 hours in a stretch at a gaming table.[178][179] On one occasion at his laboratory, Tesla worked for a period of 84 hours without sleep or rest.[180]
Kenneth Swezey, a journalist whom Tesla had befriended, confirmed that Tesla rarely slept. Swezey recalled one morning when Tesla called him at 3 A.M.: "I was sleeping in my room like one dead.... Suddenly, the telephone ring awakened me.... [Tesla] spoke animatedly, with pauses, [as he][ed] out a problem, comparing one theory to another,commenting; and when he felt he had arrived at the solution, he suddenly closed the telephone."[163]


Tesla probably suffered from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in his later years. He developed a hatred of jewelry and round objects, could not bear to touch hair, did not like to shake hands, and became obsessed with the number three—he often felt compelled to walk around a block three times before entering a building, and demanded 18 napkins (a number divisible by three) to polish his silver and glasses and plates until they were impeccable, whenever he went dining. If he read one of an author's books, he had to read all of his books.[181] The nature of OCD was little understood at the time and no treatments were available, so his symptoms were considered by some to be evidence of partial insanity, undoubtedly damaging what was left of his reputation.[citation needed]


Tesla with an unknown woman
Tesla was celibate and never married, claiming that his chastity was very helpful to his scientific abilities.[175] However, towards the end of his life, he told a reporter, "Sometimes I feel that by not marrying, I made too great a sacrifice to my work...."[182] There have been numerous accounts of women vying for Tesla's affection, even some madly in love with him.[citation needed] Tesla, though polite and soft-spoken, behaved ambivalently towards these women in the romantic sense.[citation needed]
Tesla was prone to secluding himself.[citation needed] However, when he did engage in a social life, many people spoke very positively and admiringly of Tesla. Robert Underwood Johnson described him as attaining a "distinguished sweetness, sincerity, modesty, refinement, generosity, and force."[183] His loyal secretary, Dorothy Skerrit, wrote: "his genial smile and nobility of bearing always denoted the gentlemanly characteristics that were so ingrained in his soul."[184] Tesla's friend, Julian Hawthorne, wrote, "seldom did one meet a scientist or engineer who was also a poet, a philosopher, an appreciator of fine music, a linguist, and a connoisseur of food and drink."[citation needed]

Mark Twain in Tesla's lab, early 1894
Tesla was a good friend of Robert Underwood Johnson,[185] Francis Marion Crawford, Stanford White,[186] Fritz Lowenstein, George Scherff, Kenneth Swezey.[187][188][189] In middle age, Tesla became a close friend of Mark Twain. They spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere.[185] Twain notably described his induction motor invention as "the most valuable patent since the telephone".[190] In the late 1920s, Tesla befriended George Sylvester Viereck, a poet, writer, mystic,[citation needed], and later, a Nazi propagandist.[191] Though nearly a hermit, Tesla occasionally attended dinner parties held by Viereck and his wife.[citation needed]
Tesla could be harsh at times, openly expressing disgust for overweight people, such as when he fired a secretary because of her weight.[192] He was quick to criticize clothing. On several occasions, Tesla directed a subordinate to go home and change her dress.[175] When Thomas Edison died in 1931, Tesla contributed the only negative opinion to the New York Times, buried in an extensive coverage of Edison's life:
He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene ... His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 percent of the labor. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense.[193]

Views on experimental and theoretical physics

Tesla working in his laboratory.
Tesla's education did not extend into higher level mathematics and theoretical physics and he exhibited a pre-atomic understanding of physics in his writtings.[194][195] He disagreed with the theory of atoms being composed of smaller subatomic particles, stating there was no such thing as an electron creating an electric charge (he believed that if electrons existed at all they were some fourth state of matter or sub-atom that could only exist in an experimental vacuum and that they had nothing to do with electricity)[196][197] To Tesla atoms are immutable—they could not change state ot be split in any way. He was a believer in the 19th century concept of an all pervasive "ether" that transmitted electrical energy.[198]
Tesla was generally antagonistic towards theories about the conversion of matter into energy.[199] He was also critical of Einstein's theory of relativity, saying:
I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.[200]
Tesla claimed to have his own physical principle regarding matter and energy that he started working on in 1892[199] and in 1937, at age 81, he claimed, in a letter, to have completed a "dynamic theory of gravity" that "[would] put an end to idle speculations and false conceptions, as that of curved space".[201] He stated that it was "worked out in all details" and that he hoped to soon give it to the world.[202] Further elucidation of his theory was was never found amongst his writings.[203]

Societal views

Bust of Tesla by Ivan Meštrović, 1952, in Zagreb, Croatia and Nikola Tesla monument by Les Drysdale in Niagara Falls, Ontario.
Tesla, like many of his era, became a proponent of an imposed selective breeding version of eugenics. His opinions stemmed from a belief that humans already interfered with the natural "ruthless workings of nature", rather than from conceptions of a "master race" or inherent superiority of one person over another. His advocacy of it was, however, to push it further. In a 1937 interview, he stated:
... man's new sense of pity began to interfere with the ruthless workings of nature. The only method compatible with our notions of civilization and the race is to prevent the breeding of the unfit by sterilization and the deliberate guidance of the mating instinct .... The trend of opinion among eugenists is that we must make marriage more difficult. Certainly no one who is not a desirable parent should be permitted to produce progeny. A century from now it will no more occur to a normal person to mate with a person eugenically unfit than to marry a habitual criminal.[204]
In 1926, Tesla commented on the ills of the social subservience of women and the struggle of women toward gender equality, indicated that humanity's future would be run by "Queen Bees". He believed that women would become the dominant sex in the future.[205]
Tesla made predictions about the relevant issues of a post-World War I environment in a printed article, "Science and Discovery are the great Forces which will lead to the Consummation of the War" (20 December 1914).[206] Tesla believed that the League of Nations was not a remedy for the times and issues.[citation needed]

Religious views

Tesla was raised as an Orthodox Christian. Later in his life, he did not consider himself to be a "believer in the orthodox sense" and opposed religious fanaticism.[207] He had a profound respect for both Buddhism and Christianity.[34][207]
In his article, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy", published in 1900, Tesla stated:
For ages this idea [that each of us is only part of a whole] has been proclaimed in the consummately wise teachings of religion, probably not alone as a means of insuring peace and harmony among men, but as a deeply founded truth. The Buddhist expresses it in one way, the Christian in another, but both say the same: We are all one.[208]
However, his religious views remain uncertain due to other statements that he made.[209][210]

Literary works

Tesla wrote a number of books and articles for magazines and journals.[211] Among his books are My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla; The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla, compiled and edited by David Hatcher Childress; and The Tesla Papers.
Many of Tesla's writings are freely available on the web,[212][213][214] including the article "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy", published in The Century Magazine in 1900,[215][216] and the article "Experiments With Alternate Currents Of High Potential And High Frequency", published in his book Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla.[217][218]

Legacy and honors

Tesla on cover of Time Magazine for 20 July 1931.

Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, Serbia.

Nikola Tesla on 100 Serbian dinar banknote.
Tesla's legacy has endured in books, films, radio, TV, music, live theater, comics and video games. The lack of recognition received during his own lifetime has cast him as a tragic and inspirational character, well suited to dramatic fiction. The impact of the technologies invented by Tesla is a recurring theme in several types of science fiction.

Plaques and Memorials

Nikola Tesla Corner in New York
  • The Nikola Tesla Memorial Centre in Smiljan opened in 2006. It features a statue of Tesla designed by sculptor Mile Blažević.[228][229]
  • On 7 July 2006, on the corner of Masarykova and Preradovićeva streets in the Lower Town area in Zagreb, the monument of Tesla was unveiled. This monument was designed by Ivan Meštrović in 1952 and was transferred from the Zagreb-based Ruđer Bošković Institute where it had spent previous decades.[230][231]
  • A monument to Tesla was established at Niagara Falls, New York. This monument portraying Tesla reading a set of notes was sculpted by Frano Kršinić. It was presented to the United States by Yugoslavia in 1976 and is an identical copy of the monument standing in front of the University of Belgrade Faculty of Electrical Engineering.
  • A monument of Tesla standing on a portion of an alternator, was established at Queen Victoria Park in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The monument was officially unveiled on 9 July 2006 on the 150th anniversary of Tesla's birth. The monument was sponsored by St. George Serbian Church, Niagara Falls, and designed by Les Drysdale of Hamilton, Ontario.[232][233] Drysdale's design was the winning design from an international competition.[234]
  • In 2012, Jane Alcorn, president of the nonprofit group The Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe, and Matthew Inman, creator of web cartoon The Oatmeal, joined forces to honor "the Father of the Electric Age", by preserving the Wardenclyffe facility as a science center and museum.[235] On 22 August 2012, the fundraising group exceeded its target after a $33,000 donation put the total amount raised at $873,169. Including a matching grant from the state of New York, the crowd funding campaign raised approximately $1,700,000 in six days, with the campaign originally slated to run 45 days.[236] However, people kept donating after the goal was reached, collecting over a million dollars 9 days after the action was started.[237]
  • A commemorative plaque honoring Nikola Tesla was installed on the façade of the New Yorker Hotel by the IEEE.[238]




  1. ^ a b Jonnes 2004, p. 355
  2. ^ "Electrical pioneer Tesla honoured". Tesla was equally proud of his Serb origins and Croatian homeland (BBC NEWS). Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  3. ^ "Tesla Village". Tesla said: " I am equally proud of my Serbian origin and my Croatian fatherland.". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  4. ^ "Tesla Timeline". July, 30th: Tesla's American Citizenship Tesla becomes an American citizen. He often told friends that he valued this citizenship more than any scientific honors he'd received.. Tesla Universe. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  5. ^ Phillip A. Laplante, Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering 1999, page 635
  6. ^ a b George Constable, Bob Somerville, A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements That Transformed Our Lives, page 70
  7. ^ "Tesla Tower in Shoreham Long Island (1901–1917) meant to be the "World Wireless" Broadcasting system". Tesla Memorial Society of New York. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  8. ^ Tim O'Shei, Marconi and Tesla: Pioneers of Radio Communication, page 106
  9. ^ Clifford A. Pickover, Strange Brains and Genius: The Secret Lives Of Eccentric Scientists And Madmen, page 19
  10. ^ Donald Clarke, Mark Dartford, The New illustrated science and invention encyclopedia: how it works: Volume 24, 1994, page 3332
  11. ^ Emily J. McMurray, Jane Kelly Kosek, Roger M. Valade, Notable Twentieth-century Scientists: S-Z, Gale Research, 1995, page 2000
  12. ^ A. Bowdoin Van Riper, A. Van (16 September 2011). A Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists and Inventors in American Film and TV since 1930. p. 130. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  13. ^ Tyler Hamilton. Mad Like Tesla: Underdog Inventors and Their Relentless Pursuit of Clean Energy. p. 14. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  14. ^ a b "Tesla No Money Wizard; Swamped By Debt, He Vows". NewYorkWorld. 18 March 1916.,r:0,s:0,i:75&tx=60&ty=51. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  15. ^ a b Michaels, Daniel. "Long-Dead Inventor Nikola Tesla Is Electrifying Hip Techies". TheWallStreetJournal. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Among Technophiles, Tesla In and Edison Out". FoxNews. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  17. ^ a b Frum, Larry. "Backers raise cash for Tesla museum honoring 'cult hero'". CNN. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  18. ^ A. Bowdoin Van Riper, A. Van (16 September 2011). A Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists and Inventors in American Film and TV Since 1930. p. 150. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  19. ^ "Greatest American Top 100". Discovery Channel. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  20. ^ "Welcome to the Tesla Memorial Society of New York Website". Tesla Memorial Society of New York. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  21. ^ "Tesla, Nikola". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  22. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 10
  23. ^ a b Seifer 2001, p. 7
  24. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 12
  25. ^ Cheney, Uth & Glenn 1999, p. 3
  26. ^ a b "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  27. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  28. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  29. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 32
  30. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  31. ^ "Tesla Life and Legacy – Tesla's Early Years". PBS. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  32. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 33
  33. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Tesla, Nikola. "My Inventions The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla". Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  35. ^ Glenn, edited by Jim (1994). The complete patents of Nikola Tesla. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 1566192668.
  36. ^ a b c d e f Seifer, Marc J. (1998). Wizard : the life and times of Nikola Tesla : biography of a genius (Carol Pub. Group ed. ed.). Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub.. ISBN 0806519606.
  37. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  38. ^ "Tesla's Biography". Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  39. ^ a b c "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  40. ^ O'Neill, John J. (1996). Prodigal genius : the life of Nikola Tesla. New Mexico: Brotherhood of Life. ISBN 0914732331.
  41. ^ O'Neill, John J. (1996). Prodigal genius : the life of Nikola Tesla. New Mexico: Brotherhood of Life. ISBN 0914732331.
  42. ^ a b Seifer 2001, p. 18
  43. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  44. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  45. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  46. ^ Mrkich, D. (2003). Nikola Tesla : the european years (1st ed. ed.). Ottawa: Commoner's Publishing. ISBN 088970113X.
  47. ^ "NYHOTEL". Tesla Society of NY. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  48. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  49. ^ "Nikola Tesla: The Genius Who Lit the World". Top Documentary Films.
  50. ^ "Coming to America". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  51. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  52. ^ Carey, Charles W. (1989). American inventors, entrepreneurs & business visionaries. Infobase Publishing. p. 337. ISBN 0-8160-4559-3. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  53. ^ a b Cheney 2001, pp. 54–57
  54. ^ Jonnes 2004, p. 110
  55. ^ Pickover, Clifford A. (1999). Strange brains and genius: the secret lives of eccentric scientists and madmen. Harper Perennial. p. 14. ISBN 0-688-16894-9. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  56. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 64
  57. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  58. ^ a b Jill Jonnes, Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  59. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  60. ^ "Tesla Timeline, Year: 1887". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  61. ^ "Timeline of Nikola Tesla". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  62. ^ Jill Jonnes, Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World, 2003 - 416 pages - Google eBook - Preview. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  63. ^ ‪Networks of power‬: ‪electrification in Western society, 1880-1930‬‬. JHU Press. p. 117.
  64. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica, "Galileo Ferraris"".
  65. ^ "Galileo Ferraris".
  66. ^ Neidhöfer, Gerhard. "Early Three-Phase Power Winner in the development of polyphase ac".
  67. ^ Pansini, Anthony, J (1989). Basic of Electric Motors. Pennwell Publishing Company. p. 45. ISBN 0-13-060070-9.
  68. ^ "Galileo Ferraris Physicist, Pioneer of Alternating Current Systems (1847-1897) Inventor of the Induction Motor "Father of three-phase current" - Electrotechnical Congress, Frankfurt 1891". Edison Tech Center. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  69. ^ Fritz E. Froehlich, Allen Kent, The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications: Volume 17, page 36. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  70. ^ a b John W. Klooster, Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates, page 305. 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  71. ^ Harris, William (2008-07-14). "William Harris, How did Nikola Tesla change the way we use energy?, page 3". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  72. ^ Norrie, H. S., "Induction Coils: How to make, use, and repair them".Norman H. Schneider, 1907, New York. 4th edition.
  73. ^ Cheney 2001, p. 174
  74. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  75. ^ Krumme, Katherine (2000) (PDF). Mark Twain and Nikola Tesla: Thunder and Lightning. University of California, Berkeley.
  76. ^ a b c Burgan, Michael (2009). Nikola Tesla : physicist, inventor, electrical engineer. Minneapolis, Minn.: Compass Point Books. ISBN 0756540860.
  77. ^ a b c "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  78. ^ Kenneth L. Corum and James F. Corum, Ph.D.. "Tesla’s Connection to Columbia University *". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  79. ^ a b Tesla, Nikola (1892). Experiments with alternate currents of high potential and high frequency. p. 58. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  80. ^ David J. Bertuca, Donald K. Hartman, Susan M. Neumeister, The World's Columbian Exposition: A Centennial Bibliographic Guide, page xxi. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  81. ^ Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, page 76. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  82. ^ Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, page 79. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  83. ^ Barrett, John Patrick (1894). Electricity at the Columbian Exposition; Including an Account of the Exhibits in the Electricity Building, the Power Plant in Machinery Hall. pp. 268–269. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  84. ^ "Tesla’s Egg of Columbus How Tesla Performed the Feat of Columbus Without Cracking the Eg". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  85. ^ Thomas Parke Hughes, Networks of power: electrification in Western society, 1880-1930 (1983), page 119
  86. ^ Hans Camenzind, Much Ado About Almost Nothing: Man's Encounter With the Electron, (2007), page 107
  87. ^ Seifer, Marc J. (1998). Wizard : the life and times of Nikola Tesla : biography of a genius, page 190
  88. ^ Cheney, Margaret (2001). Tesla: man out of time. Simon and Schuster. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-7432-1536-7.
  89. ^ Maja Hrabak et al., "Nikola Tesla and the Discovery of X-rays," in RadioGraphics, vol. 28, July 2008, 1189-92. Retrieved August 26, 2012
  90. ^ P. K. Chadda, Hydroenergy and Its Energy Potential. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  91. ^ According to an account by Edward R. Hewitt - Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, page 134
  92. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  93. ^ South, Nanette (2011-07-23). "Nikola Tesla - Radiography Experiments - Clips from the "The Constitution, Atlanta, Georgia, page 9. Friday, March 13, 1896"". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  94. ^ N. Tesla, "High Frequency Oscillators for Electro-Therapeutic and Other Purposes", in Proceedings of the American Electro-Therapeutic Association, American Electro-Therapeutic Association. Page 25.
  95. ^ Griffiths, David J. Introduction to Electrodynamics, ISBN 0-13-805326-X and Jackson, John D. Classical Electrodynamics, ISBN 0-471-30932-X.
  96. ^ Anonymous (1899). Transactions of the American Electro-therapeutic Association. p. 16. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  97. ^ a b c editor, Leland Anderson, (1998). Nikola Tesla's teleforce & telegeodynamics proposals. Breckenridge, Colo.: Twenty First Century Books. ISBN 0963601288.
  98. ^ Orton, John (2004). The Story of Semiconductors. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 53. – via Questia (subscription required)<
  99. ^ "The Beautiful New York City where Tesla spent 60 years of his life". Tesla Society of NY. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  100. ^ Eger, Christopher (April 1, 2007) "The Robot Boat of Nikola Tesla: The Beginnings of the UUV and remote control weapons"
  101. ^ P. W. Singer, Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century - Robots Go To War. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  102. ^ a b Jean-Michel Redouté, Michiel Steyaert, EMC of Analog Integrated Circuits, page 3
  103. ^ Robert Sobot, Wireless Communication Electronics:Introduction to RF Circuits and Design Techniques, page 4
  104. ^ Prodigal Genius, John J. O'Neill, pp. 162–164
  105. ^ a b c d "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  106. ^ According to the Tesla memorial marker in Memorial park on Pikes Peak Ave.
  107. ^ Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, Leland I. Anderson, 21st Century Books, 2002, p. 109, ISBN 1-893817-01-6.
  108. ^ Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, and A. H. Aidinejad, "Atmospheric Fields, Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors". 1994.
  109. ^ Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, "Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations, and Stationary Waves". 1994.
  110. ^ Tesla, Nikola, "The True Wireless". Electrical Experimenter, May 1919. (also at
  111. ^ Valone, Thomas, Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature. ISBN 1-931882-04-5
  112. ^ Ouellette, Jennifer. "LIGHTNING FLASHES ON ORIGIN OF SOLAR SYSTEM". Discovery News. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  113. ^ Gillispie, Charles Coulston, "Dictionary of Scientific Biography"; Tesla, Nikola. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. ISBN
  114. ^ Childress, Nikola Tesla & David H. (1993). The fantastic inventions of Nikola Tesla. Stelle, Ill.: Adventures Unlimited. ISBN 0932813194.
  115. ^ SECOR, H. WINFIELD (August 1917). "TESLA'S VIEWS ON ELECTRICITY AND THE WAR". The Electrical Experimenter. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  116. ^ "Nikola Tesla and the Planetary Radio Signals". Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  117. ^ Corum, Kenneth L.; James F. Corum (1996). Nikola Tesla and the electrical signals of planetary origin. p. 14. OCLC 68193760.
  118. ^ a b c d Seifer, Marc. "Nikola Tesla: The Lost Wizard". ExtraOrdinary Technology (Volume 4, Issue 1; Jan/Feb/Mar 2006). Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  119. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  120. ^ Seifer, Marc (1998). Wizard, the Life and Times of Nikola Tesla. Citadel Press. p. 542. ISBN 0806519606.,_the_Life_and_Times_of_Nikola_Tesla.
  121. ^ a b Broad, William J (May 4, 2009). "A Battle to Preserve a Visionary’s Bold Failure". NYTimes. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  122. ^ a b c Broad, William J.. "A Battle to Preserve a Visionary's Bold Failure". "He eventually sold Wardenclyffe to satisfy $20,000 (today about $400,000) in bills at the Waldorf"
  123. ^ "Timeline". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  124. ^ a b c Page, R.M., "The Early History of RADAR", Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 50, Number 5, May 1962, (special 50th Anniversary Issue).
  125. ^ See U.S. Blows Up Tesla Radio Tower (1917) (citing page 293 of the September, 1917 issue of The Electrical Experimenter): "SUSPECTING that German spies were using the big wireless tower erected at Shoreham, L. I., about twenty years ago by Nikola Tesla, the Federal Government ordered the tower destroyed and it was recently demolished with dynamite."
  126. ^ "Tesla Tower". Tesla Memorial Society of New York. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  127. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915". Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  128. ^ a b c Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, page 245. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  129. ^ Research, Health (1996-09). Nikola Tesla Research. p. 9. ISBN 0-7873-0404-2. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  130. ^ Seifer 2001, pp. 378–380
  131. ^ "Distinguished Scientists (Einstein, Tesla, Langmuir, Steinmetz, etc.) on a Tour of the Wireless Station, Somerset, NJ (1921)". Franklin Township Public Library. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  132. ^ Tesla, Nikola. "TESLA PATENT 1,655,114 APPARATUS FOR AERIAL TRANSPORTATION.". UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE..,655,114-aerial-transportation. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  133. ^ "A.J.S. RAYL Air & Space magazine, September 2006, reprint at History of Flight". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  134. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  135. ^ a b "Kako je Hrvatska naglo ‘otkrila’ velikog izumitelja iz Smiljana [How Croatia suddenly 'discovered' a great inventor from Smiljan]" (in Croatian). 19 February 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  136. ^ "150. obljetnica rođenja Nikole Tesle [150th anniversary of the birth of Nikola Tesla]" (in Croatian). HINA. Office of the President of Croatia. 10 July 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  137. ^ "Tesla Village". Tesla Memorial Society of New York. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  138. ^ O'Neill, John J. (2006). Prodigal genius : the life of Nikola Tesla. New York: Cosimo. ISBN 1596057130.
  139. ^ "Tesla's Ray". Time. 23 July 1934.
  140. ^ a b c Seifer, Marc. "Tesla's "Death Ray" Machine". Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  141. ^ "Tesla, at 78, Bares New 'Death-Beam'". New York Times. 11 July 1934.
  142. ^ "Tesla Invents Peace Ray". New York Sun. 10 July 1934.
  143. ^ "Beam to Kill Army at 200 Miles, Tesla's Claim on 78th Birthday". New York Times. 11 July 1934.
  144. ^ "'Death Ray' for Planes". New York Times. 22 September 1940.
  145. ^ "Death-Ray Machine Described". New York Sun. 11 July 1934.
  146. ^ "A Machine to End War". Feb. 1935.
  147. ^ "United States Patent Office Nikola Tesla,of New York, N.Y. VALVULAR CONDUIT Specification of Letters Patent Patented Feb. 3, 1920 Numbered 1.329.559 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Patent No. 1,329,559
  148. ^ "TESLA, AT 78, BARES NEW 'DEATH-BEAM'". New York Times. 1934. Retrieved 29 June 2012. same article at
  149. ^ a b Seifer 2001, p. 454
  150. ^ "Aerial Defense 'Death-Beam' Offered to U.S. By Tesla" 12 July 1940
  151. ^ Seifer, Marc J.. "Tesla's "death ray" machine". Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  152. ^ O'Neill, John J.. "Tesla Tries To Prevent World War II (unpublished Chapter 34 of Prodigal Genius)". PBS.
  153. ^ a b c d e f g h "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  154. ^ "Tesla Timeline". July, 30th: Tesla's American Citizenship Tesla becomes an American citizen.. Tesla Universe. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  155. ^ "The Missing Papers". PBS. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  156. ^ David Hatcher Childress, The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla, page 249. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  157. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  158. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  159. ^ "Urn with Tesla's ashes". Tesla Museum. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  160. ^ a b Šarboh, Snežana (October 18–20, 2006). "Nikola Tesla's Patents" (PDF). Sixth International Symposium Nikola Tesla. Belgrade, Serbia. p. 6. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
  161. ^ Cheney, 62
  162. ^ O'Neill 2007, pp. 283, 286
  163. ^ a b c Seifer, Marc J. (1998). Wizard : the life and times of Nikola Tesla : biography of a genius (Carol Pub. Group ed. ed.). Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub.. p. 413. ISBN 0806519606.
  164. ^ a b Brisbane, Arthur (Sunday, July 22, 1894.). "OUR FOREMOST ELECTRICIAN.". The World.
  165. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 238
  166. ^ "About Nikola Tesla". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  167. ^ "Tesla Life and Legacy – Poet and Visionary". PBS. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  168. ^ "Tesla Quotes". Tesla universe. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  169. ^ [About Nikola Tesla "About Nikola Tesla"]. Tesla Society of USA and Canada. About Nikola Tesla. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  170. ^ GITELMAN, LISA. "Reconciling the Visionary with the Inventor Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla". technology review (MIT). Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  171. ^ Munson, Richard (2008). From Edison to Enron: The Business of Power and What It Means for the Future of Electricity. Praeger. p. 37. ISBN 0-275-98740-X. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  172. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 292
  173. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 289
  174. ^ O'Neill, John Joseph (1944). Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla. Ives Washburn. p. 327. ISBN 0914732331.
  175. ^ a b c d Cheney 2001, p. 33
  176. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 282
  177. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 46
  178. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 43
  179. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 301
  180. ^ O'Neill 2007, p. 208
  181. ^ Mast, Amy (PDF). America's forgotten innovator, Nikola Tesla. Florida State University. pp. 14–15.
  182. ^ Seifer, Marc J. (1998). Wizard: the life and times of Nikola Tesla: biography of a genius (Carol Pub. Group ed. ed.). Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub.. ISBN 0806519606.
  183. ^ Seifer, Marc J. (1998). Wizard the life and times of Nikola Tesla : biography of a genius. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press/Kensington Publishing Corp.. ISBN 0806535563.
  184. ^ O'Neill, John J. (2007). Prodigal genius : the life of Nikola Tesla. New York: Cosimo Classics. ISBN 1602067430.
  185. ^ a b "Famous Friends". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  186. ^ "Stanford White". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  187. ^ "KENNETH M. SWEZEY PAPERS, 1891-1982 #47". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  188. ^ "Tribute to Nikola Tesla". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  189. ^ "Nikola Tesla at Wardenclyffe". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  190. ^ "Nikola Tesla: The patron saint of geeks?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  191. ^ JOHNSON, NEIL M.. George Sylvester Viereck: Poet and Propagandist. NEIL M. JOHNSON.
  192. ^ Cheney 2001, p. 110
  193. ^ Thomas Edison: Life of an Electrifying Man. Biographiq. 2008. p. 23. ISBN 1-59986-216-6. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  194. ^ Gregory Malanowski, The Race for Wireless: How Radio Was Invented (or Discovered?), page 29
  195. ^ Thomas Valone, Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy, Adventures Unlimited Press, 2002, Page 181
  196. ^ James J. O'Neill, Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla, page 249
  197. ^ "The Profit of Science Looks Into The Future", Popular Science Nov 1928, page 171
  198. ^ Marc Seifer, Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla, page 1745
  199. ^ a b O'Neill, John (1944). Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla. Ives Washburn. p. 247. ISBN 0914732331.
  200. ^ New York Herald Tribune, 11 September 1932
  201. ^ "Nikola Tesla". Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  202. ^ Prepared Statement by Nikola Tesla downloadable from
  203. ^ Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, page 309
  204. ^ "A Machine to End War". Public Broadcasting Service. February 1937. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
  205. ^ Kennedy, John B., "When woman is boss, An interview with Nikola Tesla". Colliers, 30 January 1926.
  206. ^ Tesla, Nikola. "Science and Discovery are the great Forces which will lead to the Consummation of the War". rastko. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  207. ^ a b Nikola Tesla; by Nikola Tesla as told to George Sylvester Viereck (February 1937). "A Machine to End War". Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  208. ^ Tesla, Nikola. "THE PROBLEM OF INCREASING HUMAN ENERGY". Century Illustrated Magazine. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  209. ^ Nikola Tesla (September 11, 1932). Lawrence R. Spencer. ed. Alien Interview. New York Herald Tribune. p. 303. ISBN 9780615204604. "It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making."
  210. ^ Nikola Tesla. FECHA. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  211. ^ "Nikola Tesla Bibliography". 21st Century Books. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  212. ^ "Nikola Tesla Information Resource". 21st Century Books. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  213. ^ "Selected Tesla writings". 21st Century Books. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  214. ^ Works by Nikola Tesla at Project Gutenberg
  215. ^ Tesla, Nikola (1900). id=mdp.39015013530053;q1=increasing%20human;start=1;size=100;page=root;view=image;seq=193;num=175 "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy". The Century Magazine 60 (n.s. v. 38) (1900 May–Oct): 175. id=mdp.39015013530053;q1=increasing%20human;start=1;size=100;page=root;view=image;seq=193;num=175. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  216. ^ "THE PROBLEM OF INCREASING HUMAN ENERGY". Twenty-First Century Books. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  217. ^ Tesla, Nikola. "The Project Gutenberg eBook, Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency, by Nikola Tesla". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  218. ^ Tesla, Nikola. "EXPERIMENTS WITH ALTERNATE CURRENTS OF HIGH POTENTIAL AND HIGH FREQUENCY". Twenty-First Century Books. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  219. ^ "Nikola Tesla | 20 July 1931". TIME.,16641,19310720,00.html. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  220. ^ "Time front cover, Vol XVIII, No. 3, 20 July 1931". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  221. ^ Seifer 2001, p. 464
  222. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of minor planet names. Springer. p. 183. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  223. ^ "Why the Name "Tesla"?". Tesla Motors. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  224. ^ "Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport". Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  225. ^ Vujovic, Dr. Ljubo. "Tesla Biography NIKOLA TESLA THE GENIUS WHO LIT THE WORLD". Tesla Memorial Society of New York. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
  226. ^ "Memory of the World | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  227. ^
  228. ^ "Nikola Tesla Memorial Centre". Nikola Tesla Memorial Centre. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  229. ^ "Memorijalni centar "Nikola Tesla" u Smiljanu" (in Croatian). City of Gospić. Retrieved 27 May 2011. [dead link]
  230. ^ "Tesla Timeline". Tesla Universe. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  231. ^ "Weekly Bulletin". Embassy of the Republic of Croatia.,%20Issue%2015).pdf. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  232. ^ "Tmsusa". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  233. ^ "Niagara Falls". Tesla Memorial Society of NY. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  234. ^ "Tesla Honored With Niagara Falls Momument". IEEE Canada. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  235. ^ Frum, Larry (21 August 2012). "Backers raise cash for Tesla museum honoring 'cult hero'". CNN. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  236. ^ "Tesla museum campaign exceeds fund-raising target". BBC News. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  237. ^ "We just passed one million dollars. Now what?". the oatmeal. 2012-07-25. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  238. ^ "A hotel's unique direct current (dc) system". IEEE. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  239. ^ "Nikola Tesla". GIMNAZIJA KARLOVAC. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  240. ^


| }}
  • Lomas, Robert, The Man who Invented the Twentieth Century. Lecture to South Western Branch of Instititute of Physics.
  • Martin, Thomas Commerford, The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla, New York: The Electrical Engineer, 1894 (3rd Ed.); reprinted by Barnes & Noble, 1995 ISBN-X
  • Penner, John R.H. The Strange Life of Nikola Tesla, corrupted version of "My Inventions".
  • Pratt, H., Nikola Tesla 1856–1943, Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 44, September, 1956.
  • Weisstein, Eric W., Tesla, Nikola (1856–1943). Eric Weisstein's World of Science.
  • Dimitrijevic, Milan S., Belgrade Astronomical Observatory Historical Review. Publ. Astron. Obs. Belgrade, 162–170. Also, Srpski asteroidi, Tesla. Astronomski magazine.
  • Roguin, Ariel, Historical Note: Nikola Tesla: The man behind the magnetic field unit. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004;19:369–374. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Sellon, J. L., The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry. Behrent Eng. Co., Wheat Ridge, Colorado. Cement Industry Technical Conference. 1997. XXXIX Conference Record., 1997 IEEE/PC. Page(s) 125–133. ISBN
  • Valentinuzzi, M.E., Nikola Tesla: why was he so much resisted and forgotten? Inst. de Bioingenieria, Univ. Nacional de Tucuman; Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE. July/August 1998, 17:4, pp. 74–75. ISSN
  • Secor, H. Winfield, Tesla's views on Electricity and the War, Electrical Experimenter, Volume 5, Number 4, August, 1917.
  • Florey, Glen, Tesla and the Military. Engineering 24, 5 December 2000.
  • Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations, and Stationary Waves. 1994.
  • Corum, K. L., J. F. Corum, and A. H. Aidinejad, Atmospheric Fields, Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors. 1994.
  • Meyl, Konstantin, H. Weidner, E. Zentgraf, T. Senkel, T. Junker, and P. Winkels, Experiments to proof the evidence of scalar waves Tests with a Tesla reproduction. Institut für Gravitationsforschung (IGF), Am Heerbach 5, D-63857 Waldaschaff.
  • Anderson, L. I., John Stone Stone on Nikola Tesla's Priority in Radio and Continuous Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus. The AWA Review, Vol. 1, 1986, pp. 18–41.
  • Anderson, L. I., Priority in Invention of Radio, Tesla v. Marconi. Antique Wireless Association monograph, March 1980.
  • Marincic, A., and D. Budimir, Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation. Dept. of Electron. Eng., Belgrade Univ. (5th International Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite, Cable and Broadcasting Service, 2001. TELSIKS 2001. pp. 327–331 vol.1) ISBN-X
  • Page, R.M., The Early History of Radar, Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 50, Number 5, May, 1962, (special 50th Anniversary Issue).
  • C Mackechnie Jarvis Nikola Tesla and the induction motor. 1970 Phys. Educ. 5 280–287.
  • Giant Eye to See Round the World (DOC)
  • Bock-Luna, Birgit (2007). The past in exile: Serbian long-distance nationalism and identity in the wake of the Third Balkan War. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 3-8258-9752-4, 9783825897529.

Further reading





External links

No comments:

Post a Comment