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Critique of term usage
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- Enchantment: a psychological state induced by (or as if induced by) a magical incantation
- A state of mind in which consciousness is fragile and voluntary action is poor or missing
- A state resembling deep sleep
- Capture: attract; cause to be enamored; "She captured all the men's hearts"; in the sense of entranced
- A condition of apparent sleep or unconsciousness, with marked physiological characteristics, in which the body of the subject is liable to possession
- An out-of-body experience in which one feels they have passed out of the body into another state of being, a rapture, an ecstasy. In a general way, the entranced conditions thus defined are divided into varying degrees of a negative, unconscious state, and into progressive gradations of a positive, conscious, illumining condition.
- A state of hyper or enhanced suggestibility.
- An induced or spontaneous sleep-like condition of an altered state of consciousness, which permits the subject's physical body to be utilized by the discarnate as a means of expression[disambiguation needed]
- An altered state of awareness induced via hypnotism in which unconscious or dissociated responses to suggestion are enhanced in quality and increased in degree
- A state induced by the use of hypnosis; the person accepts the suggestions of the hypnotist
- A state of consciousness characterized by extreme dissociation often to the point of appearing unconscious.
Origins and history
Temple of Epidaurus: healing sleep
Oral lore and storytelling
Mesmer and the origin of hypnotherapy
- Mesmer, an influential but discredited promoter of trance states and their curative powers.
- Milton Erickson, the founder of hypnotherapy who died in 1980, introduced trance and hypnosis to orthodox medicine and psychotherapy—hypnosis here is something different from traditional clinical hypnosis.
Trance in American Christianity
Trance and Anglo-American Protestants
Trance induction and sensory modality
- Auditory: driving through the sense of hearing by chanting, auditory story telling, mantra, overtone singing, drumming, music, etc.;,
- Kinesthetic: driving through the sense of feeling and movement through the kinesphere by dance, story telling by movement, mudra, embodying rituals, yoga, breathwork, oxygen deprivation, sexual stimulation etc.;
- Visual: driving through the sense of sight by yantra, visual story telling, mandala, cinema, theater, art, architecture, beauty, strobe lights, form constants, symmetry;
- Olfactory: driving via scent through the sense of smell by perfume, pheromones, incense, flowers, pollen, indeed any scent for which we have an association or memory, etc.;
- Gustatory: driving through the sense of taste and indigestion; including: starvation, herbs, hallucinogens and drugs. As the intake of food and beverage entails intra-bodily chemical reactions through digestion, some infer that all food may be considered medicine or drugs and therefore contribute to the induction of discernible psycho-physical states (see Ancient Medicine). It can be attained through the ingestion of psychoactive drugs, particularly psychedelics, such as marijuana, LSD, Peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, andMDMA.
- Disciplines: Yoga, Sufism, Surat Shabd Yoga; meditation;
- Miscellaneously: traumatic accident, sleep deprivation, nitrogen narcosis (deep diving), fever, by the use of a sensory deprivationtank or mind-control techniques, hypnosis, meditation, prayer;
- Naturally occurring: dreams, lucid dreams, euphoria, ecstasy, psychosis as well as purported premonitions, out-of-body experiences, and channeling.
Auditory driving and auditory art
Visual driving and visual art
Kinesthetic driving and somatic art
Types and varieties
- Maenads and Bacchae: in Greek mythology, Maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus, the Greek god of mystery, wine andintoxication, and the Roman god Bacchus. The word literally translates as "raving ones". They were known as wild, insane women who could not be reasoned with. The mysteries of Dionysus inspired the women to ecstatic frenzy; they indulged in copious amounts of violence, bloodletting, sexual activity, self-intoxication, and mutilation. They were usually pictured as crowned with vineleaves, clothed in fawnskins and carrying the thyrsus, and dancing with wild abandon. They were also characterized as entranced women, wandering through the forests and hills. The Maenads were also known as Bassarids (or Bacchae or Bacchantes) inRoman mythology, after the penchant of the equivalent Roman god, Bacchus, to wear a fox-skin, a bassaris.
- Norse berserkers were said to have often entered battle entrenched in a state of primal rage, biting their shields and howling like wolves. This fanaticism was so powerful that they were known to continue fighting even after having lost limbs or being otherwise deeply wounded.
- Samādhi: yoga provides techniques to attain a state of ecstasy called samādhi. According to practitioners, there are various stages of ecstasy, the highest of which is called Nirvikalpa samādhi. Different traditions have different understanding of Samādhi.
- Bhakti: (Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning "devotion" and also "the path of devotion" itself, as in Bhakti-yoga. Within Hinduism the word is used exclusively to denote devotion to a particular deity or form of God. Within Vaishnavism bhakti is only used in conjunction with Vishnu or one of his associated incarnations, it is likewise used towards Shiva by followers ofShaivism. Saints in these traditions exhibit different trance states or ecstasy.
- Agape or "Divine Love": the term agape appears in the Odyssey twice, where the word describes something that creates contentedness within the speaker.
- Communion: In the monotheistic tradition, religious ecstasy is usually associated with communion and oneness with God. Indeed, ecstasy is the primary vehicle for the type of prophetic visions and revelations found in the Bible. However, such experiences can also be personal mystical experiences with no significance to anyone but the person experiencing them.
- Rapture or religious ecstasy: is an altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness which is frequently accompanied by visions and emotional/intuitive (and sometimes physical) euphoria. Although the experience is usually brief in physical time, there are records of such experiences lasting several days or even more, and of recurring experiences of ecstasy during one's lifetime. Subjective perception of time, space and/or selfmay strongly change or disappear during ecstasy.
- Peak experiences: is a term developed by Abraham Maslow and used to describe certain extra-personal and ecstatic states, particularly ones tinged with themes of unification, harmonization and interconnectedness. Participants characterize these experiences, and the revelations imparted therein, as possessing an ineffably mystical (or overtly religious) quality or essence.
- In Christianity, the ecstatic experiences of the Apostles Peter and Paul are recorded in Acts 10:10, 11:5 and 22:17.
- Some charismatic Christians practice ecstatic states (called, e.g., "being slain in the Spirit") and interpret these as given by theHoly Spirit.
- In hagiography (writings on the subject of Christian saints) many instances are recorded in which saints are granted ecstasies. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, religious ecstasy (called supernatural ecstasy) includes two elements: one, interior and invisible, in which the mind rivets its attention on a religious subject, and another, corporeal and visible, in which the activity of the senses is suspended, reducing the effect of external sensations upon the subject and rendering him or her resistant to awakening.
- Trance states have also long been used by shamans, mystics, and fakirs in healing rituals, being particularly cultivated in somereligions, such as Tibetan Buddhism. Australian shamanism has been observed 
Brainwaves and brain rhythms
- Joseph Jordania, Why do People Sing? Music in Human Evolution. Logos, 2011
- (Shamanic Trance in Modern Kabbalah, 2011)
- Wiles, David (2000). Greek Theatre Performance: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. Source: 
- Lawlor (1991: p. 374) states that: "The supernormal, super sensory powers of Aboriginal wise woman and men of high degree, by their own accounts, comes directly from initiations administered by the ancestral sky heroes themselves and by the totemic spirits. Those who have gone through these initiations alone, in a deep trance that makes them lose their personal identities and confront manifestations of the ancestral powers, are held in the highest regard."
- Lawlor (1991: p. 303) states that: "One such animal dance ceremony was observed and photographed by Gillen and Spencer. More than 30 naked men gathered in a large circle. One by one, each man performed the dance of the animal to be hunted while the others sang and slapped their buttocks to create a percussive beat for the dancer. The slapping sound was so loud that it could be heard for miles across the surrounding desert. The dance continued for hours, with each man dancing frenetically until he dropped from exhaustion. The eyes of the onlookers soon became glazed with entrancement; their penises were erect in a state of ecstatic arousal. Finally, after the last man had performed the animal dance and collapsed in exhaustion, the entire group leaped on him, emitting a loud abandoned cry. The next day the hunt began."
- Cameron, Julia (1993). The Artist's Way. Oxford, London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-34358-0
- Horgan, John (2003). Rational Mysticism: Dispatches from the Border Between Science and Spirituality. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
- James, William The varieties of religious experience (1902) ISBN 0-14-039034-0
- Tart, Charles T., editor. Altered States of Consciousness (1969) ISBN 0-471-84560-4
- Tart, Charles T. States of Consciousness (2001) ISBN 0-595-15196-5
- Inglis, Brian (1990). Trance: A Natural History Of Altered States Of Mind. London, Paladin. ISBN 0-586-08933-0
- Wier, Dennis R. Trance: from magic to technology (1995) ISBN 1-888428-38-4
- Wier, Dennis R. "The Way of Trance". New York, New York: Strategic Books. (2009) ISBN 978-1-60860-663-4
- Hoffman, Kay (1998). The Trance Workbook: understanding & using the power of altered states. Translated by Elfie Homann, Clive Williams, and Dr Christliebe El Mogharbel. Translation edited by Laurel Ornitz. ISBN 0-8069-1765-2
- Piers Vitebsky, The Shaman: Voyages of the Soul - Trance, Ecstasy and Healing from Siberia to the Amazon, Duncan Baird, 2001.ISBN 1-903296-18-8
- Nowack, William J & Feltman, Mary L. (date?) "Eliciting the Photic Driving Response". American Journal of Electroneurodiagnostic Technology. Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 43–45.
- Von Gizycki, H., Jean-Louis, G., Snyder, M., Zizi, F., Green, H., Giuliano, V., Spielman, A., Taub, H. (1998). “The effects of photic driving on mood states” in Journal of psychosomatic research. Vol. 44, N. 5, pp. 599–604. New York, NY: Elsevier. ISSN 0022-3999
- McDaniel, June (1989). The Madness of the Saints: Ecstatic Religion in Bengal. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-55723-5(Paper); 0-226-55722-7 (Cloth) & ISBN 978-0-226-55723-6 (Paper); 978-0-226-55722-9 (Cloth).
- Michaelson, Jay (1997). "Paths to the Divine: Ecstatics and Theology in R. Dov Baer of Lubavitch". Source:http://www.metatronics.net/lit/dovbaer.html (6 December 2006).
- Neophytou, Charles (1996). The Encyclopedia of Mind Body and Spirit. Millennium Edition. Yanchep, Western Australia: Lindlahr Book Publishing. ISBN 0-646-26789-2
- Lewis, I.M. (2003). Trance, Possession, Shamanism and Sex. In Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 14, Number 1, March–June 2003, pp. 20–39.
- Hubbard, Timothy L. (2003). Some Correspondences and Similarities of Shamanism and Cognitive Science: Interconnectedness, Extension of Meaning, and Attribution of Mental States. In Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 14, Number 1, March–June 2003, pp. 26–45
- Vyner, Henry M. (2002). The Descriptive Mind Science of Tibetan Buddhist Psychology and the Nature of the Healthy Human Mind. In Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 13, Number 2, September–December 2002, pp. 1–25.
- Rich, Grant Jewell (2001). Domestic Paths to Altered States and Transformations of Consciousness. Volume 12, Number 2 (September–December 2001).
- Wallis, Robert (1999). Altered States, Conflicting Cultures: Shamans, Neo-Shamans and Academics. In Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 10, Numbers 2–3 (June–September 1999).
- Warren, Jeff (2007). "The Trance". The Head Trip: Adventures on the Wheel of Consciousness. Toronto: Random House Canada.ISBN 978-0-679-31408-0.
- Goodman, Felicitas D. (1999). Ritual Body Postures, Channeling, and the Ecstatic Body Trance. In Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 10, Number 1 (March 1999).
- Castillo, Richard J. (1995). Culture, Trance, and the Mind-Brain. In Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 6, Number 1, March 1995, pp. 17–34.
- Heinze, Ruth-Inge (1994). Applications of Altered States of Consciousness in Daily Life. In Anthropology of Consciousness. Volume 5, Number 3, September 1994, pp. 8–12.
- "Speaking in Tongues Medical Study proves Holy Spirit praying." Narr. Maybrey, Vicki. Nightline. ABC. Gettysburg, Philadelphia, 17 July. 2008.
- Taves, Ann (1999). Fits, Trances, & Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Smith, Huston (2000). Cleansing the Doors of Perception: The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Plants and Chemicals. Tarcher/Putnam, ISBN 1-58542-034-4, Council on Spiritual Practices, ISBN 1-889725-03-X
- Lawlor, Robert (1991). Voices Of The First Day: Awakening in the Aboriginal dreamtime. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International, Ltd. ISBN 0-89281-355-5
- Wier, Dennis R. (2007). The Way of Trance Laytonville, California: Trance Research Foundation. ISBN 978-1-888428-10-0.
- Wilde, Stuart. (1996). The Art of Meditation. Carlsbad: Hay House. ISBN 978-1-56170-530-6
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